IOE OpenIR  > 光电技术研究所博硕士论文
探测与测距一体化技术研究
白虎冰
Subtype硕士
2019-05-23
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院光电技术研究所
Degree Name工学硕士
Keyword探测系统,激光测距,变焦镜头,探测和测距一体化,光学设计
Abstract

       近些年以来,随着科技的发展,对于光电跟踪设备的需求越来越多,而传统的分立式探测与测距系统中,探测与测距系统各自独立布局,引起整个系统的出现测距测不准,测不好的问题,同时对光电系统的结构紧凑、体积方面造成很大的影响,间接的影响了整个系统的性能。
       由于定向系统内部探测和测距系统独自集成引起的光轴不共线,常常出现不能有效测距的问题,同时限制了系统的性能。基于传统分立式布局探测与测距系统,本文尝试建立探测和测距一体化系统,使其同光路共孔径,消除视差,提高了整个系统集成度。本文即是针对传统的分立式探测与测距系统为研究对象,促进光电测量系统的小型化发展,提高定向系统的适应性。
       可见光成像和激光测距是传统的定向系统的重要组成部分,其中成像系统是为了 对目标进行成像,以获取目标成像特征,并通过实时跟踪以确定目标方位信息;而测距系统主要是为了获取目标的距离信息。只有确定目标方位和距离信息,才能实现对目标的测量。
       本文首先研讨了探测与测距的基本原理,其借助探测器将光信号转变为电信号,而探测系统是将光信号转变为图像信号。测距信号是将激光回波信号转变为电信号,然后进行波形的处理,通过测量飞行时间可以计算出被测距离。最后通过激光测距数字化仿真进行仿真,模拟实际的测量过程,得出每一步的波形结果,仿真结果与理论、实际相符合。
      针对传统的分立式探测与测距系统单独布局引起的光轴不共线,尝试建立了探测与测距一体化系统,而整个一体化系统关键点在于接收端的结构。对于接收端的结构,提出三种方法,分别分析讨论了三种结构的利弊,确定将变焦镜头作为接收端的主接收镜,这样既能保证对于不同距离的目标的成像清晰,又能兼顾结构上的相对简单和紧凑,缩小了整体的体积,消除了视差。
       结合实际的项目需求和条件,进行探测与测距一体化系统的具体构建,在接收端主要利用一个大口径长焦距的变焦镜头来对不同距离的目标进行成像,设计实现了焦距从100mm~600mm连续变化的变焦镜头,其最大口径达到135.56mm,,系统总长为564mm,F数基本上保持不变,像面照度始终稳定、均匀,在一体化光电设备的应用中有很大意义。
      最后实现了一体化系统的建立,并分析了测距的误差;然后对整个系统进行三维模型的结构设计,对关键部位进行的有限元热分析,保证其在外场温度变化下保证能够正常工作。
       本论文尝试建立针对近距离小目标的探测与测距一体化系统,在通过外场实验的验证下,表明在ATP系统整体指标不变的前提下,采用探测和测距一体化系统,替代传统的分立式探测与测距方法,为进一步研制小型化多场景应用的定向系统提供参考。

 

Other Abstract

Since in recent years,with the development of science and technology,more and more demand for optoelectronic tracking equipment,the traditional discrete detection and ranging system, the detection and ranging system layout independently,the uncertainty of the problems in the system, at the same time on the photoelectric system structure is compact, have a big impact in term of volume, indirect influence the performance of the whole system.
      However, the non-collinearity of the optical axes, which is caused by independently internal integration of detection system and ranging system, will results in the problem of ineffective measure of the distance frequently, and limits the system performance. In this paper, on the basis of traditionally discrete detection and ranging system, attempts on establishing the integrated detection and ranging system is made to make their optical paths collinear and their apertures identical, to eliminate parallax and to improve the system integration. Taking the traditional discrete detection and ranging system as the research object, this paper is aimed at promoting the miniaturization of the photoelectric measurement system, and improving the adaptability of the orientation system.
      Visible imagery and laser ranging are the important components of traditional orientation systems. The imaging system is used to image the target to acquire the target imaging features and to track the target azimuth information through real-time tracking. The ranging system is mainly for acquisition the distance information of the target. The target can be measured only when the target azimuth and distance information have been gained.
      In this paper, the basic principles of detection and ranging are discussed first, where a detector is utilised to convert the optical signal into the electrical signal, while the detection system converts the optical signal into an image. The ranging signal is the electrical signal converted from the laser echo signal, of which the waveform has been processed. The measured distance can be calculated by the measurement of the flight time. Finally, the actual measuring points are simulated by the digital simulation of laser ranging. Furthermore, the waveforms of each step are obtained. The simulation results correspond with the theory and practice.
      For the non-collinearity of the optical axes caused by the discrete layout of the detection and ranging system, attempts are made on designing the integrated system of detection and ranging, where the design of the receiving end is the key point. There are three solutions proposed regarding to the design of the receiving end. The advantages and disadvantages of the three structures are analysed and discussed. The zoom lens is determined as the main receive lens of the receiving end, which ensures the clear imaging of the target at different distances, makes the structure relatively simple and compact, reduces the whole size and eliminates parallax.
       Considering the requirements of actual project and conditions, the detailed design of integrated detection and ranging system has been conducted. At the receiving end, the zoom lens with large calibre and long focal length is applied to image the targets at different distances. The continuously adjustable zoom lens is implemented, where the range of the focal length is from 100 mm to 600 mm, the calibre is 135.56 mm and the total length is 564 mm. The F-number is nearly unchangeable and the imaging surface is stable and uniform. The great significance will be reflected in applications of integrated photoelectric equipment..
      Finally, the integrated system is established. The error of ranging is analysed. Then, the structural design of the three-dimensional model for the whole system is carried out, and the finite element thermal analysis of the key parts is carried out to ensure that it can work normally under the change of the external field temperature.
        Attempt of establishing the integrated detection and ranging system aimed at close and small targarts is made in this paper. Validation by the field experiment shows that the integrated design of detection system and measuring system can replace the traditionally discrete design, without changing the overall indices of the ATP system. This method provides a reference for further developing an orientation system for miniaturized multi-scene applications.

Key words: Detection system, Laser ranging, Zoom lens, Detection and ranging integration;Optical design 

MOST Discipline Catalogue工学 ; 工学::仪器科学与技术
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/9089
Collection光电技术研究所博硕士论文
Corresponding Author白虎冰
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
白虎冰. 探测与测距一体化技术研究[D]. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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