IOE OpenIR  > 光电技术研究所博硕士论文
三轴光电跟踪设备对在轨目标捕获策略的研究
陈德毅
学位类型硕士
导师柳万胜
2018-05
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点北京
关键词三轴光电跟踪设备 误差分析 不确定区域 搜索捕获方式
其他摘要

在轨目标监视是国家空间战略信息获取的重要途径,而地基无源监视跟踪系统是我国空间目标监视系统的重要组成部分。已经运行的地基无源监视跟踪系统多采用地基光电跟踪设备,将其按结构分类可分为两轴和三轴光电跟踪设备,三轴光电跟踪设备具有跟踪过天顶目标的优势而被广泛应用。目前光电跟踪设备跟踪空间目标的工作流程是引导、探测、捕获、跟踪等,其中捕获是完成任务的关键环节,是高概率完成任务的重要基础和保障。现有的捕获技术多数是针对两轴有源主动式的,而基于三轴无源被动式的捕获方法尚无系统的研究。本文是在分析捕获原理的基础上,制定的基于三轴无源被动式搜索捕获空间目标的捕获策略,重点研究捕获过程中空间目标的短时间、高概率“落入”视场问题。经分析,解决捕获“落入”问题主要有三个步骤,误差源分析、主要误差到不确定区域的计算、不确定区域内搜索捕获方法的设计。文中详细的讨论了以上几个步骤,建立了地基三轴光电跟踪设备无源被动的搜索捕获空间目标的方法,并通过仿真实验说明了模型的正确性。

本文先是介绍了空间目标捕获的基本概念和光电跟设备跟踪空间目标的工作流程,结合三轴光电跟踪设备捕获空间目标的实际应用场景,分析出影响捕获过程视轴指向与目标位置存在偏差的各种因素。对各因素采用误差传递的方法计算出主要误差和次要误差。经计算主要误差包括轨道预报误差和三轴光电跟踪设备的视轴指向误差。

接着,建立主要误差到不确定区域的传递模型。其中,轨道预报误差到不确定区域的传递过程需要经过空间坐标转换,于是对几种空间坐标系统进行了简单介绍,包括地心惯性坐标系、地固坐标系、测站坐标系、站址坐标。当轨道预报误差由地固坐标系统经过固定方位轴引导模式传递到三轴光电跟踪设备的测量值时,需要引入三轴光电跟踪设备的视轴指向误差进行误差传递。通过以上两个阶段的误差引入和空间对应关系,最终可以计算出不确定区域的范围以及目标位置在不确定区域内的分布类型。文中列举了一些典型的空间目标,计算了主要误差到不确定区域的传递结果,并对目标位置的分布类型进行了数据分布类型检验。经计算,不同轨道高度的空间目标,在不确定区域内目标位置的分布类型均服从二维正态分布,且主要集中在不确定区域的X方向,即空间目标的沿速度方向。不确定区域的范围决定了视场搜索捕获的最大范围,但在不确定区域内采用何种方式搜索捕获、从什么位置开始搜索以及平均捕获时间等仍然是未知。为此,继续讨论了常用的几种搜索捕获方法,通过对比分析得知目标位置集中在沿速度方向的不确定区域使用螺旋搜索捕获比较合适。

文章的最后,针对搜索捕获过程具有不确定性的特点,适合采用Monte Carlo法进行搜索捕获实验的仿真。选择一些典型空间目标的不确定区域计算结果,通过搜索捕获系统各个模块的构建,计算了螺旋搜索捕获方法的搜索捕获范围与平均捕获时间的关系和多场搜索捕获的捕获概率。由实验结果的分析可知,螺旋搜索捕获方法重叠率高且搜索效率低,为此设计了非等距的逐行螺旋搜索,经验证在同等捕获概率的条件下,非等距的逐行螺旋搜索的平均捕获时间优于传统的螺旋搜索。

综上,本文根据地基三轴光电跟踪设备以无源被动的工作方式搜索捕获空间目标的实际需求,系统地分析了捕获方法中的几个步骤,最终建立了一套完整的三轴光电跟踪设备搜索捕获空间目标的方法,该方法对三轴光电跟设备搜索捕获空间目标具有一定的参考价值。

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Monitoring on orbit is an important way to obtain the national space strategic information, and the passive monitoring and tracking system is an important part of the space target monitoring system in China. The ground passive monitoring and tracking system which has been operated mostly adopts the ground-based photoelectric tracking equipment, which can be divided into two-axis and three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment according to the structure classification. The three -axis photoelectric tracking equipment has the advantage of tracking the zenith target and is widely used. At present, the process of tracking space targets by photoelectric tracking equipment is guidance, detection, acquisition and tracking, among which acquisition is the key link to complete the task, and it is the important foundation and guarantee of high probability completion task. Most of the existing acquisition technologies aim at two-axis active equipment. However, the passive acquisition method based on the three-axis passive equipment has not been systematically studied. This paper is based on the analysis of the acquisition principle, based on the three-axis passive search and acquisition strategy for acquisition space target, and focuses on the short term and high probability "falling into" field of view of the target in the acquisition process. According to the analysis, there are mainly three steps to solve the problem of catching and falling into account, error source analysis, main error to the calculation of the field of uncertain, and design of search and acquisition method in the field of uncertain. In this paper, the above steps are discussed in detail, and a passive search method for the three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment is established, and the correctness of the model is illustrated by the simulation experiment.

This paper first introduces the basic concepts and objects in orbit acquisition equipment with photoelectric tracking objects in orbit working process, combining the application of photoelectric tracking equipment to acquisition the objects in orbit three -axis analysis, there are many factors that influence the acquisition process pointing and target position deviation. Among them, the main error is the key to determine the scope of the search, and the secondary error can be ignored. Therefore, the error transfer method can be used to calculate the proportion of each error in the total error, and the main error and secondary error can be obtained. The main calculation errors include orbit prediction error and three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment pointing error.

Then, the transfer model of the main error to the field of uncertain is established. The orbit prediction error to determine the transfer does not need to go through the process of regional space coordinate transformation, and so on several space coordinate systems are introduced, including the geocentric inertial coordinate system, earth fixed coordinate system, station coordinate system and coordinates system. When the orbit prediction error from earth fixed coordinate system through fixed azimuth guidance mode is transferred to the measurement of three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment value, the need to introduce three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment pointing error transfer. Through the introduction of the above two stages of error and spatial correspondence, we can finally calculate the range of the field of uncertain and the distribution type of the target location in the field of uncertain. In this paper, some typical space targets are enumerated. The transmission results from the main error to the field of uncertain are calculated, and the data distribution type of the target location distribution is tested. It is calculated that the distribution types of target locations in different regions with different orbit heights obey the two-dimensional normal distribution, and mainly focus on the X direction of the field of uncertain, that is, the direction of the space target along the velocity direction. The range of the field of uncertain determines the maximum scope of the field of view. However, in the field of uncertain, the way to search and acquisition, where to start the search and the average time to acquisition is still unknown. For this reason, several commonly used search and acquisition methods are discussed. Through comparative analysis, it is found that the location of the target is concentrated in the field of uncertain along the speed direction, and the spiral search is suitable.

At the end of this paper, the Monte Carlo method is suitable for the simulation of the search acquisition experiment. The calculation results of the field of uncertainty of some typical space targets are selected. By searching the modules of the acquisition system, we calculate the relationship between the acquisition scope and the average acquisition time of the spiral search and acquisition method and the acquisition probability of multi-field search and acquisition. By the analysis of experimental results shows that the spiral search and acquisition method of overlapping rate is high and low search efficiency, so the design of the spiral branch of non-equidistant search, verified in the same acquisition probability under the condition of non-equidistant spiral branch search of the mean acquisition time is better than the traditional spiral search.

To sum up, according to the actual demand of the three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment in the passive way to search the space target, this paper systematically analyzes several steps in the acquisition method, and finally establishes a complete set of three-axis photoelectric tracking equipment to search the space target for the capture of the space target. This method is on the three-axis photoelectric heel equipment. It has certain reference value to search and acquisition space targets.

学科领域计算机仿真 ; 计算机应用其他学科
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/8344
专题光电技术研究所博硕士论文
作者单位中国科学院光电技术研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈德毅. 三轴光电跟踪设备对在轨目标捕获策略的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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