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CMOS 图像传感器性能及应用研究
作者: 王彦
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2001
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
导师: 袁家虎
关键词: CMOS 图像传感器(CIS) ; 有源图像传感器(APS) ; 电荷耦合器件(CCD) ; USB数字成像系统 ; 星敏感器
中文摘要: 由于人类获取的信息大多数来自视觉器官,所以,图像传感器作为视觉信息获取的一种基础器件,在现代社会中得到了越来越广泛的应用。本论文详细介绍了CMOS图像传感器的像元电路、工作原理和整体结构,并基于美国Omni Vision公司的OV7110型CMOS有源数字图像传感器芯片和OV511 USB图像处理芯片,设计并实现了一个小型的USB数字摄像系统。系统分辨率高达(640 * 480)像元,5V电源单电压供电;OV511芯片内置的压缩单元可提供高达7:1的数据压缩比,从而保证了系统和PC机间快速的图像传输。论文从系统的硬件设计和软件编程两大方面详细地叙述了此系统的实现方法,并对系统工作所需的两种重要的总线——I~2C 总线和 USB 总线进行了介绍,这有助于我们了解整个系统的工作机制。为了获得CMOS图像传感器对星敏感器应用时所关心的几个重要的性能指标,我们对此系统模型进行了实验测试。论文中将实验结果同目前在星敏感器领域中普遍使用CCD图像传感器相应的各项性能进行了详细地分析、比较,得出结论,即:CMOS有源图像传感器潜在的在灵敏度等性能上具有同CCD相似的性能;而在体积、重量、功耗、系统可靠性和抗辐射性能上相对于CCD有重大的性能优势,能充分满足下一代星敏感器对微型摄像系统体积小、重量轻、功耗低的要求。同时,对有源图像传感器(APS)相对于CCD 特有的性能扩展,如随机的窗口访问,非破坏性的数据读出,区域性的曝光控制等也在论文中进行了分析。论文最后指出CMOS图像传感器的发展动向,并给出了它在其它领域中的一些应用。
英文摘要: For the information got by people mostly comes from the vision, image sensor as a basic device to get the visual information is used more and more widely in the modern society. The pixel circuits、operational principles and whole architecture of CIS are introduced at length in the paper. Based on OV7110 CMOS digital active imaging sensor and OV511 USB image processing chip which was produced by Omni Vision company of America, a small USB digital imaging system are designed and finished, with a 640 * 480 pixels resolution and a single 5-V power supply. OV511 provides a high data compression radio up to 7:1, which make sure the image can transferred between system and PC rapidly. The design method of this system is discussed in detail from two sides of hardware and software. Two kinds of important bus used in the system, that is I~2C bus and USB Bus, are also introduced, which will help to understand the operational mechanism of the whole system. The system was tested to get several important parameters of CIS performances cared about in the star sensor. Compared to the corresponding performances of CCD usually used in the star tracker now, the experiment results are analyzed in the article in length, and draw some conclusions: CMOS APS potentially has similar performances in sensitivity etc. with CCD. While it has the important advantages in volume, weight, power, system reliability and hard insensitive to radiation, and can adequately content the performance requires of sub-miniature image system with lower weigh and power dispassion. Some additional functions improved in APS are also discussed in the paper, including random access to window-of-interest, non-destructive readout and integrate time control of different window. Development direction and some applications in other fields are introduced in the paper too.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王彦. CMOS 图像传感器性能及应用研究[D]. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2001.
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