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题名:
Windows NT下实时控制技术应用与研究
作者: 杨梅
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2001
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
导师: 戴蓉
关键词: 实时控制 ; 设备驱动程序 ; 设备驱动程序工具(DDK) ; 核心模式 ; 中断服务例程
中文摘要: Windows NT是基于微内核结构的先进操作系统,具有结构化强、可扩展性强等优点,其开放的程序结构给丰富多采的应用软件的开发留有足够的余地。Windows NT上具有丰富的后台服务程序,它们可以为用户的前台应用提供完全的连接与支持,帮助用户迅速构造客户/服务器结构的解决方案。由于Windows NT能够为最终用户、系统和网络管理员、软硬件开发人员以及其他计算机用户提供良好的特性,它已经成为世界上最为畅销的操作系统之一。近年来,由于实时控制在多媒体通信、在线事务处理、生产过程控制、交通控制等各个领域得到广泛的应用,因而越来越引起人们的重视。在计算机控制领域,随着硬件的发展,一些原本十分复杂的控制算法的设计和仿真变得越来越容易实现,控制软件是否基于Windows平台已经成为产品是否有竞争力的重要标志之一。目前基于Windows平台的相关产品已经占据了市场份额的90%,而Windows 9X和Windows NT凭借其出色的多任务、图形用户接口(GUI)、性能优越的硬件兼容性以及卓越的32位软件环境等性能已经越来越广泛地被应用于工业控制,成为实现实时控制的优秀平台。在光电所研制的光电工程、光电对抗和光束控制等设备中,引进和应用此类先进的操作平台,实现软件的良好人机交互和准确的数据传输与处理,从而达到实时控制的要求,已成为工程应用的重要内容之一。由于Windows对系统底层操作采取了屏蔽的策略,对用户而言,系统变得更为安全,但这却给众多的硬件或者系统软件开发人员带来了不小的困难,因为只要应用中涉及到底层的操作,开发人员就不得不深入到Windows的内核去编写属于系统级的设备驱动程序。而Windows NT本身并不是一个实时操作系统,它能否做到实时性,即在确定的时间内对外部事件做出响应,一直是人们所怀疑的问题。另一方面,由于DOS的单任务、寻址范围仅为lMB、缺乏对多媒体、网络等多种技术的支持等等局限性,DOS操作系统已经越来越无法满足工程应用的需要,也不能适应高速的计算机硬件的发展,无法充分利用CPU和存储器等资源,造成了极大的浪费。因此,只有在先进的操作平台上才能够满足日益复杂的工程应用要求,在此平台上实现实时控制已成为势在必行的趋势。基于以上理由和我所工程项目研制的需要,本论文分析了基于Windows NT平台的系统环境、NT设备驱动程序的基本原理和结构;结合开发工具Device Driver Kit介绍了在Visual C++环境下设计、安装NT设备驱动程序的方法;紧紧围绕着实时控制在中断处理和数据采集上的严格要求,分析了Windows NT平台下实现实时控制的可行性和技术途径;根据我所工程项目的需要,为不同频率的多路中断设计了设备驱动程序,并成功开发了PCI采集卡的设备驱动程序,实现了图像数据的高速采集记录,工作状况良好,运行稳定,为我所工程项目上一个新的平台,在Windows NT下实现实时控制应用提供了理论依据和可供借鉴的设计方法。
英文摘要: Windows NT is an advanced operation system characterizing in micro-kernel structure and strong expansibility. Its open-up program framework provides a wide room for the application development. The background service process affords a complete link and support, helping to construct a client/server solution. Since Windows NT has the advantage for the application users, system and network administrators, software and hardware developers, etc, it has become one of the most popular operation system in the world. In recent years, the real-time control is widely used in different areas, such as multimedia communications, online affair management, production procedure control and traffic control, etc. In the field of computer control, along with the development of hardware, the most important standard to judge software's competition ability is whether it is working under the Windows platform. Windows NT becomes the excellent platform due to its multi-tasks, graphic user interface (GUI), hardware compatibility and 32-bit software environment. It has been more and more widely used in industrial control field. Among the different optic and electronic equipments our institute researches in and develops, Windows operation system is one of the most important factor to make friendly an-machine conversation and exact data transportation, so that the real-time control can be fulfilled. Windows provides the protection for the system to improve ts security. But it also brings difficulty in developing hardware and system programs. Developers have to design device driver in the system kernel mode in order to manipulate the hardware. But Windows NT is not designed for real-time control appliance. Whether it can react to the outside event in certain time was doubtable. On the other hand, DOS is not able to satisfy the engineering appliance and the high development of computer science and technology any more, due to its limits on single tasks, 16-bit memory address and lack of support to multimedia and network, etc. DOS can not make full use of CPU and memory, which are the primary computer resources. Thus, the real-time control under Windows platform is the key way to catch up with the complex engineering appliance. Based on the former reasons and the requirement of our institute research work, the system environment and mechanism is discussed in this paper, as well as the method of developing device driver using Device Driver Kit and Visual Studio. The possibility of real-time control under Windows NT is also the point. The design method for a multi-frequency interrupts device is introduced, along with a PCI collection card device driver which collects and records the image data in a high speed. These efforts provide the academic support and practical methods to develop real-time control under Windows NT platform for the research work in Institute of Optics and Electronics.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/65
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杨梅. Windows NT下实时控制技术应用与研究[D]. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2001.
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