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题名:
钢带光栅编码器误差分析及补偿技术研究
作者: 赵人杰
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2009-06-05
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 马文礼
关键词: 钢带光栅编码器 ; 误差 ; 误差补偿
其他题名: Research on error analysis and compensation for a tape encoder
学位专业: 精密仪器及机械
中文摘要: 钢带光栅编码器是一种利用金属反射式直线光栅测角的增量式编码器,栅带长度可达几十米,能满足各种超大直径需求。它具有精度高,成本低,安装方便,环境适应性好等优点。目前主要应用在大型精密转台测角系统中,能适应人们对测角精度越来越高的要求。利用它进行整圆测量时,首先须解决接头相位匹配问题;此外在实际应用中系统精度不可避免地受到各类误差源影响,需采取一定的补偿技术以提高光栅的测量精度。针对上述问题,本文进行了深入的探讨与研究。 本文较为全面系统地阐述了钢带光栅编码器在工程实践应用中遇到的各类误差以及用户可采取的误差补偿技术。在理论方面,首先本文针对实现整圆测量时必须解决的接头问题,建立了失相引入的接头误差理论模型,指出了实际使用时接头间隙必须满足的条件,并且探讨了两种解决相位匹配的接头技术以及相关安装工艺。其次对实践应用中常见的误差进行了归类分析,重点分析了偏心,不圆度以及光栅倾斜等光栅安装误差,建立了相应地测角误差模型。按照误差频率特性,本文将这些误差分为:中低频周期累计误差,高频细分误差以及随机误差;针对这三大类误差,作者详细阐述了相应地补偿技术:多读数头消差技术/建立误差补偿表法,Heydemann补偿技术以及移动平均法。在实验方面,首先对最常用的多读数头消差技术进行了验证分析,并且在分析误差数据谐波特性过程中,提出了误差谐波补偿法;其次针对光栅安装误差,专门设计了可调光栅偏心和倾斜的实验平台,研究了偏心及光栅倾斜对测量精度的影响;上述实验结果与理论分析基本一致。 本文对用户自己制作钢带光栅编码器,分析光栅精度特性,合理选择误差补偿方案有一定意义,有助于指导光栅装调实际工作以及进一步提高测角精度。
英文摘要: Tape encoder is a kind of incremental angular encoder using metallic-reflective linear grating. The length of tape grating can be up to tens of meters to meet all kinds of requirements of large diameter. It has the following advantages: high accuracy, low cost, easy installation, environmental adaptability, etc. Now tape encoder is mainly used in an angular measuring system of a large precision turntable, and meets increasingly high angular accuracy requirements. When it is used to measure full-circle rotation, end phase match problem must be solved, besides, in engineering practice, system accuracy will be affected inevitably by various error sources, so angular accuracy should be improved using some corresponding compensation techniques, For these reasons, the author has explored and done further research. This dissertation presents systemically varieties of errors and corresponding compensation techniques in engineering application. In theory, for the tape joints problem to be solved, the author set up tape ends error model, propose the conditions which tap gap should meet, and discussed both of the solutions of phasing with each other and related installation process. Then, the author classified and analyzed various common errors, mainly studied tape installation errors, such as eccentricity, roundness, tape tilt, etc. and set up these angular error theoretical models. According to error frequency characteristics, the errors were divided into three types: intermediate/low-frequency cyclic error, high-frequency subdivision error and random error. For the errors above mentioned, the author elaborated corresponding error compensation techniques: multi-reading heads/building error map, Heydemann, and a short moving average. On experiments, firstly the author tested and verified multi-reading heads compensation technique. During analyzing harmonic characteristic of experimental error data, harmonic compensation method was proposed. Also the author built an experimental platform with a set of adjustable mechanical structure for eccentricity/inclination. Based on this platform, the author studied the influence of eccentricity and tape tilt on angular accuracy. The above experimental results are basically consistent with theoretical analysis. This dissertation makes sense for people to produce one’s own tape encoder, analyze accuracy characteristic of a tape encoder and choose an appropriate program of error compensation. Also it is helpful for the real work of grating alignment and further improving angular accuracy.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/370
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
赵人杰. 钢带光栅编码器误差分析及补偿技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2009.
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