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题名:
基于可控应力变形理论的非球面制造技术基础研究
作者: 孙天祥
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-08
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 杨力
关键词: 光学加工 ; 应力抛光技术 ; 非球面 ; 弹性薄板 ; 光学检测
其他题名: Fundamental research of aspheric surface fabrication technology based on controllable stress deformation theory
学位专业: 测试计量技术及仪器
中文摘要: 大型光学系统中,采用非球面光学元件能改善光学系统的复杂性、减少尺寸和重量从而有效的提高光学系统性能,因此,研制高质量大口径的非球面光学元件对空间光学和天文光学的发展有极为重要的意义。然而大口径非球面加工技术一直是先进光学制造领域研究的前沿课题,仍然面临很多挑战。对此,本文开展了以大型非球面应力抛光技术(Stressed Mirror Polishing)SMP为核心的相关先进光学制造技术的研究。 相对于经典加工固有的局限性和低加工效率,应力抛光技术(Stressed Mirror Polishing)SMP是基于弹性力学理论新的非球面加工技术。要点是根据待加工非球面求出其最佳比较球面,自由状态下将玻璃薄板加工成最佳比较球面,基于弹性力学理论计算出在玻璃薄板周边施加多大的力和力矩使球面变形为待加工的非球面,在周边施加计算出的力和力矩状态下将玻璃薄板抛光成球面,除去外加应力后,玻璃薄板恢复到自由状态,即得到所要的非球面面形。应力抛光技术(Stressed Mirror Polishing)SMP将非球面加工技术转化为球面加工技术,能够有效的提高非球面加工效率。围绕着非球面主镜应力抛光技术(Stressed Mirror Polishing)SMP开展的主要研究工作和创新点包括 (1)充分调研了非球面加工及应力抛光技术的国内外研究现状。深入研究了应力抛光技术的原理,在此基础上讨论了应力抛光技术的试验系统组成和工作过程,提出了加工大口径非球面镜的实施方案,并对其中所涉及的关键问题和技术难点进行了分析。 (2)建立了应力抛光技术的数学模型。通过对弹性力学相关理论的研究,对大型光学薄板受力变形情况进行分析。建立平面薄板模拟不同复杂面形的模型,得到了简单受力情况下弹性薄板变形的解析方程,并利用该解析方程计算光学薄板变形与所施加外力作用之间的关系,得到具体施加外力的大小和分布情况。 (3)分析了应力抛光技术有限元模型。建立符合应力抛光技术的力学模型,对力学模型进行有限元模拟、仿真与分析。基于弹性力学理论,研究了弹性薄板对复杂面型的模拟,重点强调了应力抛光技术加工轴对称非球面镜的原理和可行性。以多组施力结构施加弯矩使玻璃薄板整个面形产生的变形与理想变形进行比较,验证了有限元分析的正确性。模拟一块抛物面镜为例,采用有限元法对应力抛光技术的不同结构组合和施力结构不同高度能够产生的变形和抛物面镜承受的最大应力进行了模拟、分析和仿真计算,最终确定一种较为合理的施力结构。 (4)研究了应力抛光技术施力装置,考虑到玻璃材料自身的性质以及在周边施力的具体情况来实现球面到抛物面之间变形量的要求,设计、加工和装调一套专门用于应力抛光技术的施力装置。 (5)进行了应力抛光技术的试验研究。以加工一块口径为 , 的抛物面镜为例,分析了自由状态的球面及周边带有力和力矩的球面光学加工的工艺流程,验证应力抛光技术的合理性和有效性。采用ZYGO GPI 与三坐标测量机对抛光结束的面形进行检测,建立了球面及抛物面镜的检测系统,对试验结果进行了分析。结果表明,应力抛光技术能够以较高精度、快速地形成旋转对称的抛物面,其面形误差满足或接近于对非球面面形的精度要求。此外,对试验中的主要误差来源进行了分析和分类。
英文摘要: Aspheric optical components can reduce the complexity, size and weight to improve the capability effectively for large optical system, so how to manufacture large aspheric optical components is very important for the developing of space optics and astronomical optics. However, the fabrication of large aspheric mirror continues to be a challenge in the research field about advanced optical manufacture. For this purpose, we developed some advanced optics manufacturing research which focused on large aspheric mirror manufactured by Stressed Mirror Polishing (SMP). Comparing some inherent limitation and lower efficiency generated by classical optics manufacturing, Stressed Mirror Polishing (SMP) based on mechanics of elasticity is a novel aspheric fabrication technology. In general, after a optical flat had been ground to a best-fitting sphere surface of the desired aspheric surface, an appropriate set of forces and moments to the sphere blank is applied by Stressed Mirror Polishing (SMP) so that the sphere blank deforms into the desired aspheric surface that after a sphere has been ground and polished into the blank, the forces and moments can be removed, and the polished spherical surface deforms elastically into the desired aspheric surface. Stressed mirror polishing could transform aspheric optical fabrication technology into sphere optical fabrication technology, which could greatly improve the fabrication efficiency. This dissertation is based on the study for large aspheric mirror manufactured by Stressed Mirror Polishing, the main content and innovation as following: (1)The domestic and overseas development status about the aspheric optical fabrication and stressed mirror polishing technique are adequately investigated. Based on the fabrication principle of stressed mirror polishing, the scheme of experimental system and working process are discussed, and the scheme for manufacture large aspheric mirror is also presented. The involved key problems and technical difficulties are analyzed. (2)Stressed mirror polishing mathematical model is established. Based on the research of elasticity mechanics, the stressed deformation of large-scale elastic optical thin plate is analyzed. Establishing optical thin-plate simulation of different complex surface shape, obtaining elastic thin plate deformed analytic equation on simply stressed, utilizing the relationship between external force of application and deformation of optical thin-plate and getting magnitude and distribution of application force are discussed in this paper. (3)Based on the theory of elasticity mechanics, complex surface figure simulated by the elastic thin plate and the principle and feasibility of stressed mirror polishing on axisymmetric aspheric mirror are presented. Comparing practice deformation generated by multi-application of force configuration to perfcet deformation are adopted to certificate the finite element method availability. Considering fabrication of a paraboloid mirror for example, we adopted the finite element method to emulate and calculate the maximum stress and deformation of stressed mirror polishing to determine a proper application of force configuration. (4)Considering glass characteristic and deformation between paraboloid and sphere surface generated by application moment periphery of thin-plate, we designed, fabricated and adjusted experimental application of force device of stressed mirror polishing. (5)Having been fabricated a paraboloid mirror of diameter and for example to analyze the optical fabrication technology progress of sphere in free-state and paraboloid in stressed-state, rationality and effectiveness of stressed mirror polishing have been investigated. Establishing measurement system of sphere and paraboloid to analyze the experiment result and adopting interferometer and three-coordinate measuring machine to get surface shape of finished paraboloid, in addition, main error source are analyzed and classified in the experiment. The results indicate that the method of the stressed mirror polishing can be used to produce the revolution axisymmetric paraboloid mirrors with high precision and efficiency.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/347
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
孙天祥. 基于可控应力变形理论的非球面制造技术基础研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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