中国科学院光电技术研究所机构知识库
Advanced  
IOE OpenIR  > 光电技术研究所博硕士论文  > 学位论文
题名:
大口径非球面Ronchi光栅检测技术研究
作者: 雷柏平
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-06-04
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 伍凡
关键词: 光学测量 ; 定量检测 ; 非球面 ; 朗奇光栅
其他题名: Study on the measurement of large-aperture Aspheric Surfaces with Ronchi grating test method
学位专业: 光学工程
中文摘要: 随着科学技术的飞速发展,非球面光学元件在天文、空间光学、热核聚变、激光发射系统等高技术领域里得到了越来越广泛的应用。与此同时,这些非球面光学元件的口径需求也越来越大。然而,大型非球面的制造仍然面临着许多挑战。光学制造过程从本质上讲是所加工光学元件向理论面形逐步收敛的过程,其加工过程可以细分为三个阶段:粗磨、精磨和抛光。每一个不同的加工阶段都需要与之精度相适应的检测技术,而这些检测技术一直是光学制造者们所要努力解决的主要问题。本论文所研究的Ronchi光栅检测技术是一种既能够对大口径非球面镜精磨阶段较大误差进行定量测量,也可以用于初抛光阶段小误差准确测量的有效手段。该技术在降低了检验成本的同时缩短了大口径非球面镜的检验时间。本论文研究工作的主要任务就是要有效解决Ronchi光栅检测技术的定量检测技术难点和实际工程应用技术问题,建立一个大口径非球面光学元件精磨、初抛光阶段的检测手段。论文的研究工作包括以下几个部分: (1).论文深入研究了Ronchi光栅检测技术的几何与物理原理,并在此基础上讨论了Ronchi光栅检测技术的实验系统组成和实际检测过程,提出了检测大口径非球面镜的实施方案。 (2).本论文分析了大口径非球面Ronchi光栅检测技术的特点,提出了通过使用不同频率的光栅来实现大口径非球面加工过程中不同误差范围的有效测量方法。 (3).本论文对光栅的具体参数与待测非球面之间的关系进行了详细的研究,并在此基础上编写了光栅灵敏度分析软件,实现了能够满足动态误差测量范围的光栅参数计算。 (4).本论文对最小二乘法和Zernike多项式的两种拟合方法的进行了分析比较,充分考虑到具体实施情况,提出了基于更适合于大口径非球面镜检测的Householder变换的拟合算法,并根据上述算法编写了基于VC和MATLAB的数字图像处理软件。 (5).本论文还进行了检测系统的硬件设计。通过采用光纤光源、光栅对、反射棱镜、CCD以及计算机系统,研制出了一套大口径非球面Ronchi光栅检测实验装置。 (6).为了验证所提出的数字图像处理算法的可行性以及Ronchi光栅检测实验装置的可靠性,利用该装置分别对一个口径为140mm、F2抛物面镜以及一个口径为630mm、F1.3的抛物面镜进行了检测实验,其处理的结果与传统的自准直检测的结果比较一致。最后,对实验中的主要误差来源进行了分析和分类,主要讨论了系统误差对精度的影响。
英文摘要: With the very fast speed of the development of technology, the aspheric optical surfaces in more and more fields are generally used, in astronomy, the space optics applications, nucleus fusion and laser beam system. At the same time, the apertures of those aspheric optical surfaces are required larger and larger. However the fabrication of the large-aperture aspheric optical surfaces is facing many challenges. In substance, the process of the fabrication of the optical surfaces is the course of the convergence that from the optical surfaces to be fabricated to the optical surfaces in theory, and the process of the fabrication can be subdivided into three stages: the kibbling, the grinding and the polishing. Each of those stages needs a special testing technology to be appropriate for the corresponding precision, and those testing technologies are the most important things for the optical fabrication engineer to research. What this paper research is the Ronchi grating testing technology which can be used not only to measure the big error of the optical surface in the grinding stage in a quantitative way, but also measure the lower error of the optical surface at the beginning of polishing stage. It has the lower cost of the testing while shortens the period of the testing by using this method. This thesis is dedicated to solve the key theoretical and technical problems for the using of Ronchi grating to measure the large-aperture aspheric surfaces and the problems of application engineering, and to establish a testing method for both the grinding stage and the polishing stage of the large-aperture aspheric optical surfaces. The major research efforts are summarized as the following: (1) On the base of the adequately investigation for both the geometrical theory and physical theory of the Ronchi grating testing technology, the structure of the experience system by using the Ronchi grating is introduced, and so does the process of the practically testing. After that, a scheme of the application of using Ronchi grating to test the large-aperture aspheric optical surface is put forward. (2)According to the characters of the Ronchi grating testing technology, it takes into account that the Ronchi grating of different frequency can be used to measure the different ranges of error during the fabrication of the large-aperture aspheric optical surface. A system of surface measurement is set up through out the whole process of the optical fabrication. (3) This paper investigates the relationship between the actual parameter of the Ronchi grating and the aspheric optical surface to be measured in detail. And then a set of software on the sensitivity of the Ronchi grating is written out, through which the parameter of the Ronchi grating can be automatic calculated that could be satisfied with the any error of the surface during the whole process of the fabrication. (4) According to the analysis of the measurement principle and stitching algorithm with Zernike polynomials, a corresponding simulation of algorithm that will be fit for the large-aperture aspheric optical surface better is provide on the base of Householder transformation. Then a software on processing of digital image is written out by using the languages of visual C and Matlab depending on the algorithm and the transformation. (5) The hardware of the Ronchi testing system is also introduced in this paper. A simple machine of the testing system is made out by using of the fiber light source, the Ronchi gratings, the reflection prism, the CCD and the computer. (6) To demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm of the digital image processing and the reliability of the whole testing system including the integration of the software and the hardware, two testing experiences is done by using the simple testing machine. One of the surfaces under testing is a parabolic mirror of which the F Number is 2 and the diameter is 140mm, the other surface also is a parabolic mirror, but its F Number is 1.3 and the diameter is 630mm. Those experimental results are coincident as the results by using the classic interferometer. In additional, the source of the main errors in the experiment is analyzed and classified, and the effects of system errors on the measurement precision are mainly discussed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/344
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
10001_200618015120017雷柏平_paper.doc(17840KB)----限制开放View 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
雷柏平. 大口径非球面Ronchi光栅检测技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2009.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[雷柏平]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[雷柏平]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
文件名: 10001_200618015120017雷柏平_paper.doc
格式: Microsoft Word
此文件暂不支持浏览
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2016  中国科学院光电技术研究所 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace