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题名:
双计算全息检测非球面技术研究
作者: 谢意
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2008-06-06
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 陈强
关键词: 测量 ; 非球面 ; 计算全息图 ; 零检测 ; 自准直检测
其他题名: Study on testing aspheric surfaces with twin computer-generated holograms
学位专业: 测试计量技术及仪器
中文摘要: 随着先进光学制造技术的不断发展,以大口径非球面镜为核心元件的大口径光学系统被广泛用于天文、空间光学中。然而,如何抛光并检测满足要求的大口径非球面镜依然是光学制造领域的一大挑战。计算全息图检测非球面技术始于20世纪70年代,但是由于缺乏高精度的制作方法及检测中难以对准限制了其在实际中的应用。本文提出了一种与二元光学制作技术相结合的双计算全息技术,这项新技术能够解决上述问题,并使计算全息法可用于大口径非球面镜的实际检测。 本文所提出的二元纯位相型双计算全息图由两部分图形组成,一部分是用于检测非球面镜的主全息,另一部分是用于对准主全息的对准全息。文中首先分析了两部分全息图形的工作原理,并介绍了各自的设计方法。然后给出了用于检测Φ140、f/2的凹抛物面反射镜及Φ2000、f/2抛物面、椭球面、高次非球面和Φ1000、f/2双曲面的双计算全息图设计实例。最后,为验证设计方法的正确性及设计结果的可靠性,用商用光学设计软件Zemax对其进行仿真,并将其仿真结果与上述设计结果相比较。 主全息图和对准全息图同心且具有不同的台阶深度,致使双计算全息图制作困难。为此,本文提出了一种新的双计算全息制作方法,“单次曝光,两次刻蚀”法,即一次性将两部分全息图形在同一块掩膜版上制作出,曝光一次后,基底被刻蚀两次,从而使主全息和对准全息的相对偏心误差最小化。 介绍了所设计加工的双计算全息图检测Φ140、f/2凹抛物面反射镜的实验,其检测结果为:PV =0.406λ,RMS =0.062λ。为验证实验结果的可靠性,利用一平面镜对被测镜进行了自准直检测,结果为PV =0.333λ,RMS =0.062λ。经比较,两种检测结果吻合良好。最后,对实验所包含的误差进行了详细的分析,通过分析对准全息的误差,从而计算出全息图形条纹位置畸变误差,并得出检测结果的综合误差。研究表明,本文所提出的双计算全息图能够实现对被测非球面镜的高精度检测,该技术为更大口径的非球面镜检测奠定了基础。
英文摘要: With the constant development of advanced optical manufacture technology, the large-aperture optical system is widely used in astronomy, space optics applications, in which the large aspheric mirror has played a vital role. But, how to polish and test a requirement-meeting large aspheric mirror remains a challenge in the field of optical fabrication.Using computer-generated holograms (CGH) to test aspheric surface started as early as 1970s, but it is lacking of accurate manufacturing method and very difficult to adjust in the test that have prevented it from practical use. In combination with the binary optic manufacturing technology, a new technique called twin computer-generated holograms which can overcome the aforesaid problems has been put forward. By this technique, the CGH can be put into practical test of large aspheric mirror. The binary phase twin CGH presented consists of two segments, one is called main CGH for testing aspheric surfaces and the other is alignment CGH for aligning main CGH. Firstly, the principles of them are analyzed and design methods are introduced. Then some design examples are provided, including twin CGHs for testing a concave paraboloidal mirror(Φ140、f/2), a paraboloidal mirror(Φ2000、f/2), an ellipsoid mirror(Φ2000、f/2), a hyperboloid mirror(Φ1000、f/2) and an even aspheric surface(Φ2000、f/2). Finally, the validity of design method and the reliability of design results are testified by comparing the above results with that of simulation with commercial optical design software Zemax. The main CGH and alignment CGH are concentric, but the step heights are different, that make the twin CGH difficult to fabricate. A new process, once exposure twice etch, which fabricates both holograms of twin CGHs on one mask simultaneously and etch the substrate twice is presented. In this way, the relative decenter error between main CGH and alignment CGH can be minimized. The experiment of testing a paraboloidal mirror(Φ140、f/2) with designed CGH is depicted and its test result is 0.406λ PV (peak-to-valley), 0.062λ RMS (root-mean-square). To verify the twin CGH test result, a classic autocollimation test with a flat mirror was performed, and its result is 0.333λ PV, 0.062λ RMS. Comparing the results, it is demonstrated that the results of two kinds of test show a good agreement. Finally, the errors in the twin CGH test are discussed in detail and the error budget is obtained after the pattern distortion error of main CGH derived from analyzing the direct test result of alignment CGH. The results indicate that high-precision test of concave aspheric surfaces can be achieved with twin CGH. This technology can be extended to testing larger aspheric surfaces.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/313
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
谢意. 双计算全息检测非球面技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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