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题名:
一种四子孔径稀疏光学合成孔径成像系统的性能研究
作者: 王胜千
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-11
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 姜文汉
关键词: 稀疏光学合成孔径 ; 成像分辨力 ; 像差 ; 频率覆盖 ; 空间排布 ; 瞳面映射 ; 棱锥波前传感器
其他题名: Analysis of a sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system with four sub-apertures
学位专业: 信号与信息处理
中文摘要: 传统单孔径成像系统的空间衍射极限角分辨力受限于望远镜的口径,为了更好的获得观测目标的细节信息,需要不断增大系统的孔径尺寸。但是光学加工、制造费用和运载能力等限制因素制约了单孔径成像系统的发展。稀疏光学合成孔径成像技术通过子孔径之间的共相干涉来实现大尺度单孔径成像系统的分辨力性能,不仅避免了单孔径的制造困难,同时也降低了系统的体积和重量限制。本论文简单介绍了一种主动照明形式的合成孔径技术,即傅立叶望远技术的基本原理和关键技术,随后重点围绕一种四子孔径的稀疏光学合成孔径成像系统而展开,对该系统的空间排布、分辨力特征、像差影响以及瞳面映射误差等相关问题进行了详细研究,并对一种新型波前探测技术—棱锥波前传感器进行了初步研究。 稀疏合成孔径系统的子孔径空间排布直接决定了系统的衍射极限性能。按照避免有效频率信息丢失和抑制次峰的原则,分别计算了三种结构各自对应的空间排布限制条件,在此基础上得到了三种结构的有效频率覆盖范围和等效孔径。通过对三种结构的对比分析,结果表明当频率覆盖范围要求比较高时,只能选择三臂结构;当环形均匀结构和三臂结构具有相同的有效频率覆盖范围时,按照抑制次峰的选择标准,三臂结构要优于环形均匀结构; 当环形优化结构和三臂结构具有相同的有效频率覆盖范围时,环形优化结构的点扩散函数次峰要明显大于三臂结构,而且环形优化结构的光学传递函数缺乏三臂结构的对称特性。 由于稀疏光学合成孔径系统光瞳面的不连续性,导致了系统点扩散函数已经失去了传统单孔径成像系统所具有的圆周对称性,而且次峰的幅度增大,因此对稀疏光学合成孔径系统采用传统单孔径成像系统的瑞利分辨力准则存在一定的局限性。论文针对该四子孔径稀疏合成系统,推导了与方向性有关的分辨力性能,并说明了该系统的成像特征。 稀疏合成孔径的子孔径像差会严重影响系统共相干涉,造成分辨力下降,成像质量降低。论文推导了该四子孔径系统的子孔径像差与光学性能的定性关系,并得到了定量化的计算公式,据此对子孔径像差做了分类,加深了对各种像差影响本质的认识。按照一定的评判标准分析了像差的容限范围,并求解了平移、倾斜和离焦这些低阶像差的容限要求。 稀疏合成孔径的光束传输需要经过瞳面映射过程,因此需要研究瞳面映射误差对系统性能的影响。论文分析了理想无焦子孔径的低阶视场近似情况,并对该四子孔径系统瞳面映射横向误差、子孔径映射旋转误差和放大率误差进行了推导。结果表明瞳面映射横向误差是与视场成一阶关系的平移像差,子孔径旋转误差和放大率误差导致与视场成一阶关系的倾斜像差。计算了瞳面映射误差时系统的斯特列尔比公式,并得到了容限范围。 最后论文对新型的棱锥波前传感技术做了一定的理论研究和初步实验验证。首先推导了棱锥传感器波前探测的物理本质,说明了探测信号与波前一阶倾斜的关系,并对棱锥的角度要求、制造误差影响、棱锥和倾斜镜动态调制以及漫射板和大气高频扰动静态调制的工作原理做了阐述。在此基础上建立了实验平台对棱锥探测方法进行了初步实验论证,结果表明该棱锥波前探测方法是可行的。
英文摘要: For the traditional telescope with single aperture, the angular resolution of diffraction-limited is basically given by 1.22λ/D, so the quest for finer angular resolution in astronomy will inevitably lead to larger apertures. However, the primary mirror diameter of telescope is limited by the current optical manufacture technology, the cost of monolithic optics increases faster than diameter squared and the transmission capacity. The sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging technique which contains several individual sub-apertures to phased together to form a single image represents a promising new technique to generate an equivalent resolution of large single aperture telescope. This technology can overcome the fabrication difficulty of single-aperture and reduce the volume and weight constraints. In this dissertation, the principle and main techniques of Fourier Telescopy are briefly introduced. The purpose of this dissertation is to study a sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system with four sub-apertures. The imaging performances of the sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system with four sub-apertures including the spatial arrangement, the resolution criterion, the aberration tolerance and the effect of the pupil mapping errors are described in details. Furthermore, a kind of pyramid wavefront sensor is also analyzed theoretically and validated experimentally in this dissertation. The diffraction-limited performance of the sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system is determined by the spatial arrangement of the sub-apertures. The performances of three kinds of spatial arrangement for sparse optical synthetic aperture imaging system with four sub-apertures are analyzed in this dissertation. Based on the criterion of avoiding the loss of the effective spatial-frequency information and suppressing the secondary peak, the restrictive conditions of the spatial arrangement are calculated, and then the effective frequency coverage range and the equivalent aperture are obtained. According to the comparison, it is shown that three-arm arrangement must be adopted as long as the requirement of frequency coverage range is relatively high; when the frequency coverage range of the three-arm arrangement and the annular-uniform arrangement is equal, three-arm arrangement is better than annular-uniform arrangement based on the criterion of secondary peak’s depression. When the frequency coverage range of the three-arm arrangement and the annular-optimization arrangement is equal, the secondary peak of the annular-optimization arrangement is larger than that of the three-arm arrangement, and the optical transfer function of the annular-optimization arrangement is lost of symmetry. According to the discontinuation of pupil plane for sparse optical synthetic aperture system, the point spread function is different from that of traditional single-aperture imaging system. The loss of circular symmetry and the increase of secondary peak induce that the standard Rayleigh resolution criterion for the single-aperture system is not appropriate for the Fizeau interferometer. For the sparse optical synthetic aperture system with four sub-apertures, a resolution criterion associated with directional property is introduced and the imaging performance is described. The optical aberrations of the sub-apertures are the fundamental errors to limit the resolution performance and destroy the image quality. The effect of aberrations on the optical performance of this system is deduced, and the wavefront aberrations are classed as three types based on the relationship. The tolerance limits of piston error, tilt error and defocus error are calculated in terms of the special criterion, It is importance to analyze the effect of the pupil mapping errors on the system performance. The approximate condition of low order with afocal sub-aperture’s field-of-view is analyzed. The errors of pupil mapping lateral movement, sub-aperture’s rotation departure and the magnification mismatching are considered, which indicates that the first one is the piston aberration with first order of field-of-view and the second as well as the last one are the tilt aberration with first order of field-of-view. The formulas of Strehl ratio with pupil mapping error are calculated and the tolerance limit is obtained At last a new device called pyramid wavefront sensor is analyzed theoretically and validated experimentally in this dissertation. We analyze the angle requirement, the making error, dynamic modulation and the static modulation of the diffusing plate and the atmosphere for the pyramid wavefront sensor. The preliminary experiment for the pyramid wavefront sensor is implemented. The results show this pyramid wavefront sensor for the wavefront aberration detecting is feasible.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/299
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王胜千. 一种四子孔径稀疏光学合成孔径成像系统的性能研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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