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题名:
高分辨率大面阵CCD驱动与前端信号处理技术研究
作者: 刘光林
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-10
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 吴钦章
关键词: 电荷耦合器件 ; 驱动电路系统 ; 噪声 ; 视频信号前端处理 ; 像移补偿
其他题名: Research on driving and signal front end processing for high-resolution and large-array CCD
学位专业: 信号与信息处理
中文摘要: 高分辨率大面阵CCD是现代数字航测相机中最常用的像感器件,深入研究其驱动及输出信号的前端处理技术,设计高性能低噪声的CCD驱动电路系统,对提升整个相机的性能至关重要。本文结合某航拍相机的研制任务,研究高分辨率大面阵CCD相机电路系统中的关键技术及实现方法,最终研制出了一套完整的高分辨率大面阵CCD驱动电路系统。 论文首先介绍了CCD的基本工作原理,然后分析了全帧型大面阵CCD的正常工作、快速擦除、图像窗口输出和像元合并的驱动时序,提出了一种基于波形细分和有限状态机的CCD驱动时序发生器设计方法;对大面阵CCD图像区阵列进行了较为精确的PSpice建模,以所建立的模型为指导设计了通用的高驱动能力时钟驱动电路和低噪声直流偏置电路。 对CCD的各种噪声的起源、特性以及相应的抑制方法进行了探讨;研究了现代相机系统中对CCD输出信号的前端处理流程,重点分析了相关双采样的原理及实现方法,总结了低噪声CCD信号处理电路的设计方法。 设计了二千二百万像素全帧CCD FTF4052M的完整驱动电路系统,采用4路并行输出技术将其最高帧频提高到了3.4F/s;提出了一种基于两点校正的通道非均匀性校正方法,有效消除了输出图像的“接缝噪声”。针对航拍相机中的前向像移问题,提出了一种基于CCD多电极结构的电子像移补偿方法,理论分析证明了该方法与传统电子补偿相比能有效提高补偿效果,室内实拍实验也取得了很好的结果。设计了一种“双时序发生器结构”的CCD驱动电路系统,支持电子像移补偿的同时支持输出通道数量和输出方式的灵活选择,并完成了电路系统的可视化调试和控制软件的开发。
英文摘要: High-resolution and large-array Charge Coupled Device (CCD) is the most popular image sensor in modern digital aerial cameras. In order to improve the performance of whole aerial camera system, it is very important to study the CCD’s driving and front-end video signal processing technique and design high-performance and low-noise CCD driving systems. Based on Digital Aerial Cameras Research project, this dissertation fulfilled some important theoretical and technical studies about high-resolution and large-array CCD camera’s circuit system. Finally a complete driving circuit system is developed. At first the basic theories of CCD are introduced, then the timing sequence of normal operation, high-speed erasure, window clocking and binning for full frame CCD is analyzed. A pulse pattern generator design method based on “waveform fractionizing” and finite state machine is proposed. An RC network model of the parallel clock registers on CCD is designed using PSpice. With the guidance of this model, a universal clock driver and low-noise DC bias circuit is designed. Various CCD noise sources which affect the imaging performance of cameras are introduced and their mechanisms and reduction techniques are studied. Then the front-end video signal processing flow in modern CCD camera system is investigated, focusing on the principle and realization of Correlated Double Sampling (CDS). At last some tips on low-noise design method of front-end video signal processing circuit are summarized. A complete driving circuit system for 22M pixels full frame CCD FTF4052M is developed. With 4 output amplifiers working simultaneously, maximal frame rate of 3.4 F/s is achieved. In order to eliminate the seam noise in merged image, a method based on two-point correction is proposed and applied. Aiming at the forward image motion problem in aerial camera, a new electronic image motion compensation method for multiphase CCD is proposed. The theoretical analysis shows that it is better than conventional method. The actual photography results also show that it works very well in forward motion compensation. A “Double Pulse Pattern Generators” structure of CCD driving circuit is designed. It supports electronic image motion compensation and adaptive output modes. The debugging and controlling software is also developed.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/293
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
刘光林. 高分辨率大面阵CCD驱动与前端信号处理技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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