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题名:
多频连续波雷达目标探测和目标跟踪算法研究
作者: 张涯辉
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-06
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 付承毓
关键词: 多频连续波雷达 ; 非平稳信号 ; 线性调频信号 ; 目标探测 ; 快速傅里叶变换 ; 分数阶傅里叶变换 ; 目标跟踪 ; 数据融合 ; 事后数据处理 ; 输出信噪比 ; 分辨力
其他题名: Study on the algorithms of Target detecting and target tracking in multi-frequency continuous wave radar
学位专业: 信号与信息处理
中文摘要: 作为光电经纬仪的独立传感器,多频连续波雷达具有结构简单、处理方便等优点,其接收机的回波信号由目标进行调制。和其它形式的雷达相比,多频连续波雷达在理论上具有信息探测精度高,探测距离远等优点。但多频连续波雷达在工作中要受到噪声、杂波以及干扰的影响,这些因素的会使得目标探测、跟踪阶段出现虚警等现象,有时甚至使得雷达不能正常工作。针对这些情况,本文的目的在于开发和分析算法,为进一步提高雷达的性能提供理论研究和应用支持。本文主要分为两部分:目标探测和目标跟踪。 在目标探测部分,首先针对典型的雷达回波信号chirp信号,分析了chirp信号的频谱特性。在简要介绍各种算法以后,本文介绍了工程中常用算法傅里叶变换时在目标探测过程的误差来源,即影响探测精度的三个因素:全局变换特性,离散频谱栅栏效应和输出信噪比。并通过对输出信噪比的分析得到了输出信噪比和加速度以及积累时间的关系。 其次,本文针对多频连续波雷达目标探测对信噪比的要求。论文主要介绍了分数阶傅里叶变换在目标探测中的应用。即首先分析了它和现阶段常用的解线性调频方法的联系,并通过这些联系得解释了分数阶傅里叶变换的物理意义,并得出了分数阶傅里叶变换的低通采样定理以及它的探测精度:速度分辨力和加速度分辨力。然后通过解决分数阶傅里叶变换在工程应用的一些难题,提出了基于短时傅里叶变换和分数阶傅里叶变换的混合算法,混合算法使分数阶傅里叶变换真正走向了工程应用。 最后目标探测部分还介绍了一种速度精测的算法。算法利用离散频率栅栏效应通在时域内进行频率补偿,而在频域内进行分析的方法实现了对MFCW雷达速度的精测。 在目标跟踪部分,主要介绍了两部分内容:目标航迹的建立和目标航迹的维持。针对此前将目标探测和目标跟踪单独处理的方法,本文提出了交互式的处理方式。即在目标航迹建立阶段,将目标探测和跟踪合并处理。而在目标航迹维持阶段,将跟踪部分的数据反馈回探测部分。从而充分利用了它们之间的关系,减小了目标虚警的概率,保证了目标跟踪的稳定性和可靠性。 最后本文给出一种纯数字多频连续波雷达的仿真平台。平台采用模块化的结构进行编写,保证了平台的实用性和可靠性。仿真平台的设计实现了对多频连续波雷达处理算法的仿真和评价。
英文摘要: As an independent sensor in optic-electronic theodolite, multi-frequency continuous wave radar (MFCW radar in short) is compact in size and easy to process, and the echoes for the receiver are modulated by the targets. Compared with other radars, MFCW radar in theory has high resolution for target information and long range detection. But in work, MFCW radar is influenced by noise, clutters, and interrupts. And these factors make false-targets for MFCW radar, and sometimes false-targets will make the functions of the radar invalidated. In order to enhance the capability of MFCW radar, the dissertation develops and analyzes algorithms, and provides study on theory and suport in application. The dissertation has two parts: target detection and target tracking. In target detecting part, the dissertation focuses on the typical echo signal in MFCW radar: chirp signal. The theorems of chirp signal are analyzed in the beginning. Then the dissertation briefly introduces algorithms in chirp signal processing. And based on the usage in reality, the dissertation analyzes the error source for the Fourier Transform. That is: the theorem of global transform, discrete spectrum railing effect and output signal-to-noise ratio. At last, the dissertation gives the relation among the output SNR, the acceleration and accumulation time in Fourier transform. Second, the dissertation bases on the need of reality which calls for algorithms in capbible of low SNR signal processing. Then the dissertation realizes the application of the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT in short). In others words, the dissertation firstly studys on the relationship between the FrFT and Dechirp in chirp signal processing. Then from the relationship, another physical explaination of FrFT, the lowpass sample theory and detection resolution, including speed resolution and accerlation resolution are obtained. After working out some problems in application of the FrFT algorithm, the dissertation introduced a hybrid algorithm based on short time Fourier transform and FrFT. The hybrid algorithm makes the FrFT useful in real data processing work. A high precise measurement algorithm for speed is introduced. The algorithm, by use of the railing effect in discrete spectrum, realizes the measurement from frequency compensation in time domain and spectrum-lines comparation in frequecncy domain. In target tracking part, the establishment and maintenance of the target track are studied. Compared with conventional approach which treats the detecting and tracking as completely separate units, the dissertation designs a joint detecting-tracking system. The system combinate target detecting and target tracking as one unit in the stage of establishing the track, and feeds back the data from target tacking to target detecting in maintenance the tack stage. From such a target tacking system, the probility of false alarm is reduced. So the stability and reliability is assured in real-time work. At the end, the dissertation gives a completely digital software simulation platform for MFCW radar. In order guarantee the reliability and practicability, the software is coded in a modularized way. The platform works for algorithms simulation, and provides evaluations for algorithms in real time condition.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/292
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张涯辉. 多频连续波雷达目标探测和目标跟踪算法研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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