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题名:
微纳结构光子筛衍射成像技术
作者: 程冠晓
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2008-06-12
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 邢廷文
关键词: 衍射光学 ; 光学设计 ; 消色差 ; 光瞳切趾 ; 光子筛 ; 光刻技术
其他题名: Micro/Nano Structure Diffraction Imaging Technology of Photon Sieves
学位专业: 光学工程
中文摘要: 在极紫外波段、软X射线波段这些极短波谱区,传统的光学材料存在强烈的吸收性,严重地限制了常规的折射或反射光学系统的应用。幸好,波带片可以用于极短波段的成像。但是,波带片的分辨率决定于其最小环带宽度,而波带片最外环的宽度受限于目前的最小线宽加工技术水平,这就对最小线宽加工技术提出了很高的要求。还有,波带片需要环带支撑结构,然而制作用于极短波段的聚焦或成像的波带片的环带支撑结构是一个非常困难的技术过程。另外,传统的菲涅耳波带片因为具有突变的复振幅透射比孔径和中心对称的环带结构,使得其爱里斑衍射图样存在明显的旁瓣和光轴方向的高阶衍射,降低了成像质量。 本文研究了一种新颖的可以取代波带片的衍射光学元件-光子筛。它的衍射结构是孔而不是环带,这给光子筛成像器件的优化设计提供了更多的自由度。光子筛光瞳面上孔密度的优化布局和各对应环带上的孔的随机分布,能够有效地抑制旁瓣,消弱轴向高阶衍射,改善成像质量。与波带片相比,光子筛的分辨率不再决定于最小衍射结构特征尺寸,这就降低了对最小线宽加工技术的要求;而且光子筛只是一个膜层元件,不需要支撑结构。简言之,与传统的波带片相比,光子筛器件具有更好的成像能力和更小的加工制作难度。随着光子筛成像技术的进步,有可能参照超大规模集成电路制作方法把光子筛器件蚀刻在一片芯片上,集成整个光电处理单元,构成微纳光机电集成系统,从而有效提高器件效能,降低成本。光子筛成像技术在军事、工业和民用等方面,应用市场潜力很大。 本文从理论上阐明了光子筛的衍射成像机理,指出光子筛其实就是一种基于光瞳切趾或变迹的波带片类型衍射光学元件;明确提出了基于光瞳切趾的振幅型光子筛的计算机仿真方法、设计原则和关键技术;研究了消色差折衍混合光子筛的设计方法;提出了用于同步辐射X射线无掩模纳米光刻技术的光子筛阵列透镜的设计方案,并给出了单元器件的设计方法;设计和加工了用于可见光波段成像的单波长高斯透射窗口振幅型光子筛;详细研究了光子筛成像特性的实验表征方法。实验结果表明:光子筛的焦距随着照明波长的增大而减小;高斯光瞳切趾光子筛抑制了爱里斑衍射图样的旁瓣,略微展宽了主瓣;非相干照明情形下的光子筛成像效果优于相干照明情形;采用激光照明时,必须消除散斑的影响。
英文摘要: It is difficult to use a traditional refractive lens to focus soft x rays because of the strong absorption of solid materials in this spectral region. Fortunately, Fresnel zone plates consisting of alternative transmissive and opaque circular rings can be used to focus x rays. The spatial resolution that can be achieved with Fresnel zone plates is the order of the outmost zone and is therefore limited by the smallest structure that can be fabricated by lithography today. Furthermore, traditional Fresnel zone plates produce ring shaped second maxima that blur the images because of its rectangular transmission window. Here, photon sieve that is a novel diffractive optical element consisting of a large number of holes distributed appropriately over the Fresnel zones, can be used to focus soft x rays to spot size smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole. Higher orders of diffraction and secondary maxima can also be suppressed by several orders of magnitude. In combination with the synchrotron light source, photon sieve can offer new opportunities for high-resolution lithography and microscopy in engineering and life science. Photon sieve can also be used as a part of MOEMS to improve the efficiency and lower the cost because it is small in size, light in weight, repeatable in manufacture as well as special optical performance. This new kind of MOEMS based on photon sieve can be widely applied to martial, industrial, civilian and other fields. The imaging principle of photon sieve is analyzed that it is essentially a kind of diffractive optics based on the pupil apodization analog to Fresnel zone plates. The methods of computer simulation, design and fabrication of photon sieve are studied in detail. The simulation results and design examples of photon sieve are presented according to the scalar diffraction theory. The achromatic hybrid photon sieve is designed. The scheme of photon sieve array x rays maskless nanolithography is studied and the single photon sieve used for focusing x rays produced by the synchrotron light source is designed. An amplitude-photon sieve is fabricated by laser-beam lithographic process, which feature size is 5um on a chrome-coated quarts plate. The imaging performance of the photon sieve is characterized in precise experiments. The experimental results are shown that the focal length of photon sieve decreases as the wavelength of illumination light increases. The side lobes and higher orders of diffraction are effectively suppressed by use of a photon sieve with a Gaussian transmission window. The image quality obtained by incoherent illumination has an advantage over the one obtained by coherent illumination. Furthermore, the effects of speckle on image quality must be reduced in the case of laser illumination.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/281
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
程冠晓. 微纳结构光子筛衍射成像技术[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2008.
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