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题名:
基于FPGA的彩色插值算法在CMOS图像传感器中的应用
作者: 陈建国
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2007-06-04
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 杨世洪
关键词: CMOS图像传感器 ; 彩色插值 ; 二维滤波器 ; FPGA ; SysGen
其他题名: Implemention of the CMOS Sensors'Interpolation Based on FPGA
学位专业: 物理电子学
中文摘要: 20世纪70年代,CCD图像传感器和CMOS图像传感器同时起步。CCD图像传感器由于灵敏度高、噪声低,逐步成为图像传感器的主流。但由于工艺上的原因,敏感元件和信号处理电路不能集成在同一芯片上,造成由CCD图像传感器设计的摄像机体积大、功耗大。而CMOS图像传感器以其体积小、功耗低在图像传感器市场上独树一帜。 CMOS图像传感器实际上是一个图像系统,可以直接输出数字化图像。因此,仅需要较少的外围器件就可以构成一个相机系统。本文以CMOS图像传感器为感光元件,设计了一个相机系统来获取彩色图像,并通过CamerLink标准实现与图像采集设备的接口。FPGA是本系统的核心,用来产生控制逻辑,引导图像传感器输出图像;图像传感器工作必须的模拟偏置电压和AD参考电压由数模转换器MAX5820提供;可编程时钟芯片CY22393分别为图像传感器提供数据时钟和为CamerLink标准提供传输时钟,实现相机系统帧频的可调性;单片机负责系统辅助控制,实现各芯片参数的初始化、实时更改以及接收用户的串口命令。 由于单片CMOS彩色图像传感器表面安装有一个彩色滤波阵列,在每个像素的位置上只能采集一个颜色分量信息,其余两个颜色分量只能通过其邻近像素插值的办法得到。为了得到彩色图像,本文使用双线性插值算法重建图像,结合Bayer模板和双线性插值算法的特点,将插值转换为二维FIR滤波器设计;并利用System Generator工具箱在MATLAB中建立模型进行功能仿真,最后在相机系统的FPGA上实现了该算法。实验证明,该算法结构简单,资源消耗少,运算速度快,非常适合FPGA硬件实现,并且具有不错的插值效果。
英文摘要: In the 1970’s, the CCD sensors and CMOS sensors almost developed at the same time .Since then,CCD sensor had dominated the sensor market because of its high sensitivity and low noise.However,due to the limitation in manufacture technology,the pixel array circuits and signal processing circuits can not be intergrated together so that cameras using CCD sensor was big and power consumptive.On the contrary,cameras using CMOS sensor devleloped a school of their own in sensor market for smaller size and less power consumption. A single CMOS sensor is actually an image system,which is able to deliver digital output.So,it only needs a few peripheral components to construct a camera system. This paper designed a CMOS color camera with Camerlink interface for easy connecting with frame grabber. We used a FPGA as the core of the camera for generating the control logic for image sensor,guiding it through the full sequence of its operarion; In addition ,the DAC MAX5820 was employed to supply necessary analog bias voltage and reference voltage for the sensor.What is most important,a clock synthesizer was used to provide programmable clock for sensor and transmission in order to get variable frame rate.Furthermore,we used a MCU as assistant controller to initiate and modify the parameters of the ICs in the system, and to deal with users’ command from serial port. Because a color filter array (CFA) is fixed on the surface of CMOS image sensor,so at each pixel location, only one color sample is taken, the other two missing color values must be computed through interpolation. This paper used bilinear interpolation method to reconstruct color image.According to the characteristic of Bayer pattern and bilinear interpolation method,we designed a two-dimensional filter,which was easier,instead of interpolation algorithm.We also established a simulation modle in MATLAB using System Generator tools to perform RTL simulation.Lastly,we implemented it on the FPGA in our camera system.Our method was simple in structure,fast in compution speed,and consumed only a few resource of the FPGA.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/255
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
陈建国. 基于FPGA的彩色插值算法在CMOS图像传感器中的应用[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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