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题名:
能动磨盘结构优化设计及光学脆性材料的散粒磨料磨削特性研究
作者: 张立平
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2007-06-07
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 曾志革
关键词: 光学加工 ; 能动磨盘 ; 结构设计 ; 散粒磨料 ; 磨削 ; 破坏层
其他题名: Structural optimization of active stressed lap and removal characteristic of loose abrasives grinding optical material
学位专业: 光学工程
中文摘要: 在大型光学系统中,非球面光学元件的采用能减少光学系统的复杂性、尺寸和重量从而有效的提高光学系统的性能,因此研制高质量的大尺寸非球面光学元件对空间光学、天文观测的发展有极为重要的意义。本文围绕着大型光学主镜的加工开展了两个方面的工作: (1) 能动磨盘(Computer Controlled Active Lap, CCAL)的结构优化设计。针对现有能动磨盘在工程加工中存在的问题,参照已有的磨盘,设计了一种新的能动磨盘结构。利用有限元法对三种不同结构的能动磨盘建立了静力学模型。以加工Φ1.8m、F/1.5的大口径抛物面主镜为参照,分别对三种结构模型在不同基盘厚度时进行了变形仿真计算。通过分析能动磨盘的变形精度与对应的驱动器产生力大小的关系,优化设计出适用于Φ1.8m、F/1.5主镜加工的磨盘结构,改善的性能在60路光栅位移传感器阵列上得到验证,新结构磨盘已应用于Φ1.8m、F/1.5抛光面主镜的加工工程中。 (2) 散粒磨料对光学主镜材料的磨削特性研究。大口径非球面光学加工过程中能动磨盘加工是一种散粒磨料磨削方式。本文中先介绍光学脆性材料的散粒磨料磨削机理理论,然后利用扫描电镜和原子力显微镜对4种光学材料的散粒磨料加工结果进行观测:选取K4、K9、熔石英(FS)和微晶玻璃(Zerodur)四种材料作为实验材料,介绍了样品的制作过程。通过对实验结果的分析,得到如下结论:a) 验证了材料硬度和抛光表面光洁度的关系;b) 验证了散粒磨料脆性破裂去除方式的机理,描述了研磨光学材料时表面形成凹凸层和裂纹层的过程;c) 总结了材料表面形成凹凸的几种类型,为裂纹形成、扩展的力学理论提供一定的支持;d) 统计出每种材料在不同粒度磨料细磨后的破坏层深度,为大镜面研磨过程中不同粒度磨料的加工深度提供了数值依据。
英文摘要: Aspheric optical components can reduce the complexity, size and weight to improve the capability effectively for large optical system, so how to manufacture high quality large aspheric optical components is very important for the developing of special optics and astronomical optics. For this purpose, two researches were developed focused on large aspheric mirror manufacture. 1. Structural Optimization of Computer Controlled Active Lap (abbr. CCAL). The present Active Lap has limits in engineering manufacturing. Referring to the present CCAL, a new structure of CCAL was designed. The static model of three different structure of Active Lap was established, calculated, and analyzed, using FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. As to manufacturing a Φ1800mm, F/1.5 large paraboloidal mirror, three structure models with different thickness of base plate were calculated and analyzed respectively. By analyzing the relationship between the deforming precision of Active Lap and corresponding force generated by moment actuators, a new structure of Active Lap for manufacturing a Φ1800mm, F/1.5 large paraboloidal mirror is obtained. Its progressed performance has been proved with 60 units micro-displacement sensor array. The new structure Active Lap has been used in manufacturing. 2. Removal characteristic of loose abrasives. CCAL manufacturing is a way of loose abrasives removal in fabrication of large aspheric mirror. Loose abrasives removal can be divided two periods: grind and polish. In this dissertation, the removal mechanism of loose abrasives was introduced, and then four optical materials processed with loose abrasives were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In experiment, we chose K4, K9, FS and Zerodur as samples. The process of samples’ making was demonstration. By analyzing results of experiments, the following can be included: a) the relationship between material stiffness and polishing surface was proved; b) the function of fracture removal was proved, with demonstrating the forming process of demolish layer; c) some types of demolish on material surface was observed, which supports the mechanical theory of crack forming; d) the destroying depth of each material after grinding with loose abrasives was included, which will offer the data reliance in fabrication of large mirror.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/244
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张立平. 能动磨盘结构优化设计及光学脆性材料的散粒磨料磨削特性研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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