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题名:
空间目标的单站预测跟踪技术研究
作者: 杨颂华
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-06-11
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 马佳光
关键词: 光电目标跟踪 ; 空间目标 ; 单站 ; 预测跟踪 ; 轨道确定 ; 姿态确定
其他题名: Single-Site Prediction Tracking On Space Target
学位专业: 信号与信息处理
中文摘要: 为了解决光电跟踪系统对空间目标进行跟踪时,空间目标从视场中暂时消失的问题,本文建立了预测跟踪的概念,并系统地引入了天体力学相关理论,建立了空间目标的动力学模型,研究了一套完整的空间目标单站预测跟踪方法。 对时空关系进行了阐述,定义了相关的概念,介绍了几种重要的坐标系,并分析了这些坐标系之间的转换算法;使用动力学模型分析了二体假设下的空间目标运动轨道,给出了用轨道根数表示的动力学模型;分析了轨道根数和运动状态之间的转换算法。 对基于动力学模型的单站预测跟踪所建立的方法,包含了轨道计算、轨道确定和轨道改进三个方面;对这三个方面的原理和算法进行了分析,给出了具体的算法,对算法的精度作出了深入的分析。 研究了跟踪预测系统的软硬件实现,分析了硬件平台和软件平台的选择,以及软件实现的总体框架;提出了交替平滑方法和差分补偿方法,并给出了相应的算法;对跟踪预测系统的外场实验数据进行了全面的分析。 研制了跟踪预测系统,将动力学模型应用到对空间目标的预测跟踪。该跟踪预测系统和光电跟踪系统作为一个整体系统,属国内首次应用动力学模型的单站预测跟踪系统。此系统已经在外场对多个空间目标进行了跟踪实验,获得了预期的效果。外场实验表明,跟踪预测系统可以引导光电跟踪系统在目标较长时间暂时消失时继续保持对目标的高精度跟踪。对外场实验数据的分析表明,对于低轨和中轨的空间目标,跟踪预测系统的预测精度(rms)大概为10″左右。在外场实验中,人为让目标暂时消失10s左右,仍能保持这一预测精度。经外场实验验证,使用跟踪预测系统可以较好的解决目标较长时间消失或者目标时隐时现。相对于引导数据1′~2′的预测误差,跟踪预测系统给出的预测精度提高了约5到6倍。分析了捕获过程中为什么调整引导数据的时间较为有效,给出了对工程实践经验的理论解释。 分析了运动平台上的定向问题,提出基于恒星背景的预测跟踪方法,该方法不仅适用于对空间目标的预测跟踪,还可以应用于运动平台的姿态确定。给出了在预测跟踪中和运动平台姿态确定都可以使用的、用星表对恒星位置进行计算的算法;给出了基于四元数的运动平台定向算法。 实现了一个基于有线以太网络的远程控制和记录系统。该系统可以记录海量的实验数据,为光电跟踪系统的自我监控提供了一个平台。
英文摘要: Space target might escape from field of view for the moment when electro-optical tracking system was tracking on it. In this PhD dissertation the solution of this problem is researched. The concept of prediction tracking on space target is established for this solution. Celestial mechanics is introduced and the dynamics models are made. Finally an integrated method of single-site prediction tracking on space target is established. Relative concepts of space-time are expatiated. Some reference frames are also introduced with transforms between each two of them. A dynamics model of space target is analyzed with hypothesis of simple two-body gravitation model and orbit elements are defined. Arithmetic of transforms between state and orbit elements is analyzed. Method of dynamics model based single-site prediction tracking on space target includes three aspects: orbit compute, orbit determination and improvement of orbit. All of these aspects are analyzed about their theories and arithmetics. Concrete arithmetics are presented and the precision of them are also analyzed. Software and hardware of the track-prediction system are researched. The choice platform of software and hardware are respectively analyzed. The framework of software is presented. Crossing smooth method and difference compensate method are researched, the arithmetics are presented and applied on the track-prediction system. Data of outfield experiment of the track-prediction system are analyzed comprehensively. The track-prediction system is developed and dynamics model is applied to single-site prediction tracking on space target. The track-prediction system and the photoelectric tracking system as a whole are first domestic single-site prediction tracking system in which dynamics model is applied. Tracking experiments in outfield on space targets are good as expected. The track-prediction system guides the photoelectric tracking system keeping tracking on space target with high precision even when the target is invisible in field of view for the moment. Data from the experiments show that the standard deviation (rms) of the prediction precision is about 10 arcseconds for space target with low/moderate orbit. In the experiments, artificially disable photodetectors for 10 seconds, the prediction precision can keep high all the while. Validated by outfield experiments, the track-prediction system can solve the problem of target invisible for a while. Relative to guide data which has prediction error of 1′to 2′, the prediction error of the track-prediction system improves as about 5-6 times. During acquiring the target, to adjust the time of the guide data is effective. The theoretical explanation is presented for the engineering experience. The direction determination of the moving platform is analyzed. Star background based prediction tracking method is presented. The arithmetics of star prediction with star catalogue and quaternion based direction determination are also presented. A wired ethernet based remote control and record system is developed, which can record great experiment data and provide a platform for self-watching of the system.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/232
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杨颂华. 空间目标的单站预测跟踪技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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