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题名:
光电经纬仪仿真测试技术及其应用研究
作者: 王成刚
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-06-01
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 吴钦章
关键词: 仿真测试 ; 虚拟目标 ; 运动轨迹 ; 虚拟图像 ; 跟踪测量算法
其他题名: Research on the Simulation and Testing System of Photoelectric Theodolite
学位专业: 信号与信息处理
中文摘要: 针对光电跟踪测量技术快速发展的过程中对系统及内部算法越来越强烈的测试与评估需求,本文提出了一种基于虚拟现实和系统仿真技术的光电经纬仪仿真测试方法,主要研究内容和结果包括以下几个方面。 (1)在仿真测试技术研究方面: 提出了虚拟目标运动轨迹的两种仿真方案。一种是基于目标动力学方程的轨迹仿真方案,需要目标的气动参数及环境气象参数做为输入条件,从而求解目标在飞行过程中所受的力和力矩,然后从动力学方程计算出目标的飞行轨迹。另一种方案基于科学计算可视化方法学,将目标的运动模型和光电经纬仪的测量模型相结合,得到了用于目标运动特征仿真的可视化设计模型;然后以目标的基本飞行参数和光电经纬仪的测试目的做为仿真约束条件,实验结果表明仿真轨迹完全符合光电经纬仪的测试评估需求。 基于OpenGL的图像仿真原理,设计了光电经纬仪CCD相机的仿真模型;利用这一模型可以灵活的模拟出不同场景、不同目标和不同成像条件下光电经纬仪的成像结果。实验结果表明,使用虚拟CCD仿真出的虚拟目标图像序列,为光电经纬仪的图像处理算法提供了有效的测试与评估条件。 提出了一种光电经纬仪实时交互仿真过程中的图像叠加方法,解决了由于硬件处理能力的限制而导致高帧频图像交互仿真过程中的时间限制问题。在实时仿真的过程中,通过将预先仿真出的目标图像经旋转和平移后叠加到预先仿真的背景图像上,既保证了仿真的交互性,同时又提高了虚拟图像的渲染质量。依据透视投影模型,给出了目标图像叠加的平移量和旋转角的计算方法。仿真实验表明,由以上方式所生成叠加图像基本满足了当前仿真系统的应用需求。 (2)仿真测试技术在目标姿态测量算法研究中的应用: 提出了一种使用虚拟目标代替真实目标对姿态测量系统进行测试和评估的方法,同时给出了由经纬仪跟踪状态和目标飞行状态计算目标在经纬仪像面上成像中轴线斜率和截距的算法。实验结果表明,当虚拟目标长度在80像素时,提取精度可达0.1度;而当虚拟目标长度在6像素时,提取精度仅为5.7度。 依据在目标成像的中轴线通过像面中心的时候,平行投影法和透视投影法有相同的成像特征这一事实,提出了一种无模型误差的修正平行投影法。在判读出目标图像中轴线的斜率K和截距L的情况下,假设摄影系统的高低角再旋转atan(L/K)度,使得旋转后图像的中轴线过像面的中心点。依据透视投影模型,计算出旋转后图像中轴线的斜率,再使用此斜率做平行投影交会。仿真结果表明,该方法可以很好的消除由平行投影模型带来的模型误差,为空间目标姿态交会提供了更精确的计算结果。 (3)仿真测试技术在目标运动状态估计算法研究中的应用: 使用虚拟仿真平台研究了目标运动状态估计方法,其中包括最小二乘估计算法、Kalman滤波算法、自适应Kalman滤波算法和特殊的估计算法。对最小二乘法的实现过程及滑窗长度对滤波的影响分别进行了研究;将Kalman滤波算法与自适应Kalman滤波算法的滤波结果进行了比较;对特殊估计算法中的野值剔除算法、平稳过渡算法及Kalman滤波器工作状态辨识算法进行了重点研究。 本文针对虚拟仿真测试技术及其应用的研究符合当前仿真测试技术的工程化应用潮流,利用可视化目标轨迹仿真技术、基于OpenGL的目标图像仿真技术、仿真数据管理技术、网络通信技术和测试评估技术等,为光电经纬仪的研发过程提供了崭新的多功能辅助测试工具。通过在仿真测试平台下对目标姿态测量算法和目标运动状态估计算法的研究,不仅测试了常用的跟踪测量算法,而且还提出了一些新的计算方法,同时也验证了仿真测试系统的有效性。
英文摘要: With respect to strong demands of testing and evaluation of optoelectronic theodolite system and inner algorithm, when the rapid development of optoelectronic tracking and measurement technology. In this paper, a virtual simulation testing method is proposed for optoelectronic theodolite which based on virtual reality and system simulation technology, and the main content and result are as follow. (1)On the side of study of simulation and testing technology: Two kinds of simulation methods are proposed to simulate virtual target movement trajectory. One trajectory simulation method is based on target dynamic equation, which need target aerodynamic parameter and environment weather parameter as input condition. Then the power and moment of flying target bear can be calculated, and the target flying trajectory can be obtained from dynamic equation. Another target simulation method is guided by scientific computing visualized methodology; a visual feedback model is designed based on target flying dynamics model and optoelectronic theodolite measurement model. The basic flying parameter and the testing purpose of optoelectronic theodolite are used for the qualification of target simulation, and the properly trajectory can be designed rapidly. The experimental results show that virtual targets can be simulated effectively by this way. CCD camera simulation model of optoelectronic theodolite is designed based on OpenGL image simulation theory. Imaging result of different scene, different target and different imaging condition of optoelectronic theodolite can be simulated neatly from this model. The experimental results show that virtual target image sequence which simulate by virtual CCD can be used effectually by optoelectronic theodolite image process algorithm testing and evaluation. In the process of optoelectronic theodolite real-time interactive simulation, the high frame virtual image distortion can’t be avoided because of the limit of hardware process capability. An interactive superposition algorithm is proposed for virtual image based on comparability theory. In the process of real-time simulation, the target image which was simulated beforehand can be superposed on the background image which was also simulated beforehand, after rotating and translate. This operation can ensure the interactive character of simulation, at the same time the romance quality of virtual image can be improved highly. Guided by perspective projection model, an algorithm is given to calculate translation amount and rotating amount. Simulation results show that the superposition image has the same character with the actual simulation image. (2) Application of simulation and testing technology on algorithm study of target pose measurement: A method about testing and evaluates pose measurement system is proposed based on virtual target instead of real target. On the basis of tracking state of theodolite and flying state of target, an algorithm is given to calculate the slope value and intercept value of the target image’s centerline on image plane of theodolite. Shown by experiment result, the precision of the image interpretation system can reach 0.1 degree when the virtual target is as long as 80 pixels, but the precision is only 5.7 degree when the virtual target’s length is 6 pixels. Based on perspective projection model, a modified parallel projection method for flying pose measurement is proposed. This approach utilizes the fact that if the centerline of target image gets through the center point of the image plane, perspective projection and parallel projection must have the same image-forming property. According to the slope value K and intercept value L which are interpreted through target image, elevation of the photography system was supposed to rotate by atan(L/K) degree, then the centerline of target image should get through the center of image plane. The new slope value K’of the target image’s centerline can be recalculated by perspective projection model. With this new slope value K’, the parallel projection method can produce an accurate result with no model error. Simulation results show that model errors can be eliminated by this method commendably, and more accurate pose measurement result can be gained. (3) Application of simulation and testing technology on algorithm study of target movement state evaluation: Target movement state estimate algorithm has been studied by virtual simulation system, which includes least square algorithm, Kalman filter algorithm, adaptive Kalman filter algorithm and special evaluation algorithm. The realization of least square algorithm and how much the length of slide window influences the filter have been studied. Kalman filter has been compared with adaptive Kalman filter, and in the special evaluation algorithm the outliers detection algorithm, the stabile transition algorithm and the Kalman filter work state detect algorithm have been studied emphatically. The study of virtual simulation testing technology and its application swim with the tide of simulation technology engineering application. The fire-new multifunction assistant testing tool, which designed for the research of optoelectronic theodolite, utilize the visualization technology of trajectory simulation, image simulation technology based on OpenGL, simulation data management technology, network communication technology and testing and evaluation technology. Target pose measurement algorithm and movement state evaluation algorithm have been studied depend on this system. In this process, the in common use tracking and measurement algorithms have been tested, new algorithms have been proposed, and at the same time the validity of simulation and testing system has been validated.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/228
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王成刚. 光电经纬仪仿真测试技术及其应用研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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