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题名:
激光雷达回波信号分析与检测方法研究
作者: 陈金令
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-06-04
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 陈洪斌
关键词: 激光雷达 ; 系统仿真 ; 小波变换 ; 回波信号 ; 边缘检测
其他题名: Study on Echo Signal Processing and Detection Method of
学位专业: 测试计量技术及仪器
中文摘要: 近年来,激光雷达以其高角分辨力,高速度分辨力,高距离分辨力,强抗干扰能力,好的隐蔽性,以及出色的全天候工作能力在很多技术领域尤其是军事领域中得到广泛的应用。 如何合理而有效地设计激光雷达系统,是进行激光雷达系统研究的关键。本文根据激光雷达的工作原理,考虑了激光雷达距离方程、大气传输仿真模型、目标截面仿真模型、噪声仿真模型等模块,寻找不同环境与各模型参数的对应关系,以此预测环境对激光雷达系统性能的影响。建立了激光雷达系统的数值仿真模型,分析了激光雷达各个元器件的参数(包括激光器、探测器和光学元件)、大气传输特性等,为以后激光雷达系统的设计有目的地选择优化的设计途径进行了理论研究。 本文研究了扩展目标的激光散射特型。利用随机面元模型,详细分析了刚性随机粗糙圆柱、平面表面的激光散射特点,建立了实用化的随机粗糙圆柱、平面激光散射理论模型,并给出了正入射时几种情况下的激光散射图像,分析了平面目标、圆柱目标的激光散射能量计算方法,并仿真了光束在平面目标、圆柱目标表面做正弦摆动时,光斑在不同位置的反射能量。 基于直接探测技术,作者建立了一套试验系统,试验采用激光直接探测方式,这是一种通过测量从目标反射回来的激光能量的变化来测量目标的边缘轮廓信息的方法。驱动系统驱动振镜在X、Y方向分别以不同的频率振动,当激光经过振镜反射后,就在X、Y方向对物体表面进行二维扫描,使用光电二极管(PIN)来探测从目标返回的能量,经过滤波器后,接收的信号按照摆动频率分开,通过解调信号,可以得到目标的边缘信息,进而判断扫描物体的边缘轮廓。 小波变换具有表征信号局部特征的能力, 因此很适于探测信号中的瞬态和奇异现象, 并可展示其成分。本文采用小波多分辨率分析方法对激光回波弱信号进行处理,利用小波变换检测回波信号,可以确定回波信号的奇异点,进而确定被探测目标的边缘,结果证明小波多分辨率分析对于激光回波信号处理十分有效,提高了信号分析的准确性。
英文摘要: Developping for nearly half century, laser rader have been widely applied in many areas, especially in military application because of its particular merits such as high-angle-solution, high-speed-solution, high-distance-solution, nice-anti-jamming ability and good consealment. It is crucial to design a rational and effective lidar system for the research of the lidar. In order to analyze the performance of the lidar system, the numerical simulation model for lidar is presented. This model is based on the lidar principles, and it concerns lidar range equation, atmosphere model, cross model, noise model, etc. The effect on lidar caused by changes of important weather and system variables is analyzed. With this model, a simulation software is built to operate the simulation of lidar system. The numerical simulation can help scheme designing and performance improving of the lidar system. In this paper, the random facet model is employed to establish the rough cylinder and plane scattering theory, which is used to calculate the intensity distributions of the scattered laser from random rough cylinder and plane surfaces, and this provides useful model for the most engineering design. The calculation methods of scattering power from cylinder and plane surfaces is gotten. Under the supporting of direct detection technology, a rapid-scanning laser system was established. It measures the edge of target by detecting the change of reflected laser energy. The system steers a mirror to oscillate in X and Y directions at different frequency, so the laser beam dither in two directions to scan the surface of target. The detected energy is filtered to separate the first and second dither frequency for each channel. Edge usually owns the main information of target and lies in the anomalous and unstable location which gives the position of target profile. The fantastic point of echo signal denotes the edge message of target. The profile is usually the most important characters of target, so it is necessary for us to detect the edge message. The edge message of target can be gotten. The method can be used to track a moving object with a non-imaging mode. In order to get the fantastic point of echo signal, wavelet transform is used. Based on invariability of the quality factor of wavelet transform, combined with proper wavelet group, this paper discusses the application of wavelet transform in the detection of echo signal. On the basis of algorithm analysis, from aspects of detecting principle, detecting steps and computer emulation, the authors expatiate how to use wavelet transform to find the fantastic point of echo signal, finally to find the edge of the target being detected. Wavelet transform has the ability of denoting local signal characteristics, so it is fit to analyzing instantaneous and fantastic phenomena and can lay out signal components. The method in this paper will supply an algorithm gist and a reference for the signal processing in the detection of edge message of target. When applying the wavelet transform to the experimentation, a satisfying result was obtained. When using this method, the ability of edge detection can be greatly improved.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/218
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
陈金令. 激光雷达回波信号分析与检测方法研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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