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题名:
激光投影系统中的均匀照明研究
作者: 廖志杰
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-06-04
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 邢廷文
关键词: 柯拉照明 ; 离轴照明 ; 光棒 ; 光学混合器 ; 光学均匀器 ; 复眼 ; 偏振 ; 散斑 ; 位相板 ; 激光显示
学位专业: 光学工程
中文摘要: 步进扫描光刻投影曝光系统和激光投影显示系统,是以激光作为光源的投影系统,是现代光学技术在生产和生活中的重要应用。均匀照明系统是激光投影系统的主要子系统,变换激光出射的光束,形成投影系统预期的光能分布,为投影系统提供光能。 激光的光谱是线谱,带宽窄,色纯度高,谱线丰富,而且功率高。合理选择某些特殊波长的激光作为光源,激光显示可以实现大色域、大屏幕显示,显示色纯度高、颜色鲜艳的颜色。这将促使投影显示技术发生革命性的变化。 准分子激光的波长短、带宽窄。这使全熔石英制作的高数值孔径投影物镜的应用成为可能,促使光刻投影曝光系统的分辨力由0.5μm迅速提高到38nm,并向28nm挺进。而且大功率的准分子激光器增加了投影曝光系统的输出光通量,缩短曝光时间,提高生产效率。对300mm硅片,ASML公司最新的浸没式光刻机TWINSCAN NXT 1950i的生产效率已达到175wph。这些优点促使高分辨力的光刻投影曝光系统均采用准分子激光器作为光源。 高功率激光光束能量分布极不均匀且,空间相干性高,采用激光光束直接照明,不易形成均匀照明,且经散射后的激光光束易形成散斑噪声。针对激光光源的特殊性,本论文主要研究了如何形成均匀照明和如何抑制激光的散斑噪声两个方面的问题。首先,在忽略激光相干性的条件下,研究了光学积分器的性质和形成均匀照明的方法。其次,研究了激光光源相干性引起的散斑噪声的抑制途径。 在忽略光束相干性的条件下,本论文研究了包含光学积分器的照明系统,研究了提高光照度均匀性的方法,获得了提高照明系统均匀性的途径。详细地研究了光棒和复眼透镜两种光学积分器的光学性质,并分别构造了与积分器相匹配的辐射源。分别在两种光学积分器构成的均匀照明系统中,在适当的位置放置衍射元件形成这种辐射源。仿真结果表明,这样的照明系统能够在照明区域上形成理想均匀的光能分布。辐射源的性质存在10%的偏差时,仿真结果表明对照明均匀性的影响可以忽略。 研究了偏振光在熔石英表面折射和全反射的性质,表明进入复眼透镜的光束孔径角小于10º时,可以忽略复眼对光束偏振态的影响,而光棒存在较大的退偏效应。 研究了相干的激光光束散射引起的散斑。将投影系统中的散斑分为一次散射散斑和二次散射散斑。研究了在照明系统中,利用位相调制器件抑制散斑的技术,获得了一次散射散斑和二次散射斑衬度的变化规律,并进行了仿真验证和实验验证。 上述研究的成果,为激光投影系统的均匀照明系统设计提供了参考。本论文分别给出了光刻投影曝光系统和激光投影显示系统的均匀照明系统的设计实例。
英文摘要: The laser projection system of step & scan exposure tool and laser projector display etc.,which uses laser as light scource, plays an important role in industry and living. Illuminator is one of essential subsystems which matches the light from laser scource to the projector, and it provides light power with projectors by reshaping the laser beams and illuminating the mask or the light valves to form expected light power distribution. The color purity of laser is high because the line shape of laser spectral is a narrow line. There are plenty of spectral lines in the visible range whose light output is powerful. A laser projector display can present more realistic natural color on a large screen if choosing the laser sources reasonably. It will enable optical projector display technology and system to evolve revolutionarily. Similarly, an excimer laser wavelength is short, which the spectral width is narrow. Thus, it is possible that the high NA all fused silica projector lens can be applied to lithography system. The resolution of lithography system has been improved from 0.5μm to 38nm. It will be up to 28nm in the next generation. The high light power of excimer laser shortens the exposure time, while increases the lithography system throughout. TWINSCAN NXT 1950i step & scan tool produced by ASML can expose 175 pieces 300mm wafers per hour. But the collimated laser beams are coherent. Speckle can be evoked by scattering the beam. The illuminace will not be uniform when a laser beam is used directly.. Since the laser shortage has to be overcome, this paper focused on the ways how to illuminate uniformly with a laser beam and how to restrain the speckle. First, it is discussed the optical integrator in detail and how to form homogeneous illuminance after ignoring beam coherence. Second, it is focused on the restrain of the speckle induced by the high coherence of laser beam. After ignoring beam coherence, illuminators are described in detail. The ways how to illuminate uniformly were found out. Both the fly-eye and the optical tunnel were studied particularly. A specific radiation source matched with the fly-eye or the optical tunnel was constructed. The radiation source is formed through inserting a specific diffuser into a right place in two kinds of the uniformity illuminators composed by the fly-eyes or the optical tunnel respectively. The simulation results show that the above illumination systems can form perfect unform light power distribution and indicated that 10 per errors of the radiation source affected little. It was studied that a polarization light's refraction and total reflection on the interface between the air and fuzzed silica. It indicated that the effect of the fly-eye on depolarization of the light beam can be neglected when light aperture angle is less than 10º, while the optical tunnel depolarizes the light greatly. It was discussed how to restrain the speckle which was induced by scattering a coherent laser beam. The speckle was classified into once scattering speckle, which appears on the screen, and twice scattering speckle, which emerges on the detectors such as the retina etc.. Both the once scattering speckle and twice scattering speckle can be restrained by random phase plates modulating the laser beams. It has been confirmed by the simulations and experiments data. At last, two illuminator examples were listed in the paper. The achievements would become a good reference for illuminator designers in future.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/217
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
廖志杰. 激光投影系统中的均匀照明研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2009.
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