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题名:
微光学结构矫正人眼像差关键技术研究
作者: 高洪涛
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2009-05-26
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 张雨东
关键词: 人眼像差 ; 个性化矫正 ; 任意折射面 ; 微光学结构
其他题名: The studies for the key technologies in correcting the aberrations of human eye with micro optical structures
学位专业: 光学
中文摘要: 目前,矫正人眼高阶像差的相关研究已成为热点问题。人眼高阶像差对视觉功能有显著影响,尤其是对于某些非正常主体,矫正它们有望进一步提高视力水平。另一方面,人眼高阶像差已成为视觉光学临床技术领域的一个基本概念,它们与屈光不正、屈光不正型弱视以及低视力、白内障术后视觉功能下降等的高度相关性业已得到证实,矫正它们是这些常见病治疗的重要环节。但是,由于人眼高阶像差具有十分复杂的面型分布,它们不能为传统临床方法所矫正。 本论文提出利用微光学结构矫正人眼全部像差,提高视觉光学系统的成像质量,实现视觉功能的进一步提高;突破矫正元件的设计与优化、矫正元件的结构制作、矫正效果质量评价等关键问题,建立个性化矫正人眼像差的一般方法,为最终实现可直接佩戴的个性化人眼像差矫正镜奠定理论和技术基础。 本论文的研究内容隶属于863课题—可植入式个性化人眼高阶像差矫正镜的制作技术和设备研究(中科院光电技术研究所和北京同仁医院)的一部分。包括:1、复杂折射率分布中光线追迹的数值方法;2、理论上研究人眼像差对主观、客观视觉功能的影响,探索像差矫正的误差容限问题;3、针对曲面上矫正元件的设计,建立波前转换理论,并实现元件设计;4、研究可植入微光学元件的定位误差对矫正效果的影响,探索相应的元件优化设计技术;5、开展可植入微光学元件的制作和检测研究,并进行矫正效果的理论评估。6、开展人眼像差的个性化矫正模拟实验研究,包括个性化模拟人眼实验系统的建立及其个性化像差矫正实验。 通过将光线方程变换成经典力学中的质点运动方程,借助辛算法,实现了复杂折射率分布中的光线追迹。基于传统的像质评价理论,通过考虑视网膜和神经系统的调制传递函数,以及视觉斯特列尔判据与logMAR视力的相关性,建立了视觉功能的理论评价方法,编制了相应的计算软件。在此基础上,研究了单项泽尼克像差对成像质量的影响、人眼高阶像差对视觉成像质量的影响规律、探索建立可用于研究人眼像差个性化矫正误差容限的方法。针对个性化矫正元件的设计,建立并验证了基于任意折射面的波前转换理论。该理论的基本思想是:首先,基于几何光学的折射定律和来自同一点的光线的线汇性质,为任意折射面的面型函数建立一个偏微分方程;基于这一方程,利用泰勒展开来确定面型函数的局域性质,并逐点求出整个面型函数,从而设计出折射面。基于波前转换理论和视觉功能评价理论,系统研究了个性化矫正元件的设计问题。主要包括:个性化人眼成像系统模型的建立,个性化角膜接触镜以及个性化人工晶体的设计,个性化矫正元件的视觉效果评价等。研究表明,所设计的元件可以有效矫正人眼波前像差,残余像差RMS一般在十分之一光波长左右,且理论视觉功能有显著提高。利用最小二乘方法,研究了可植入微光学元件的定位误差对矫正效果的影响,探索了元件优化设计技术。结果表明,在临床定位精度下,利用适当的优化技术来矫正人眼全部像差,会使相当数量主体的视觉功能显著提高。基于掩模移动滤波技术,制作了个性化微光学矫正元件的原型,提出并验证了加工误差分析方法,评价了矫正效果。结果表明,目前的加工精度能够满足有效矫正人眼像差的要求。 对于人眼像差的个性化矫正模拟实验研究,依据人眼的解剖结构和光学特性,设计了个性化的模拟人眼实验系统,采用傍轴光学计算和商业软件计算来检验计算结果的可靠性;采用波前转换方法设计了位相产生元件和个性化人工晶体。研究表明,以矫正前后的传递函数为指标,像差矫正效果非常显著;矫正元件的旋转定位误差对矫正效果影响不大;矫正元件平移定位误差小于0.15毫米时,像差矫正效果会十分明显;对临床常用的人工晶体材料PMMA,眼压的变化对人工晶体的表面变形的影响可以忽略不计。 本工作的研究及成果为最终实现可直接佩戴的个性化人眼像差矫正镜奠定了理论和技术基础。
英文摘要: To date, the studies cornering the correction of higher-order aberrations of human eye have become an interested issue. The higher-order aberrations of human eye have essential impacts on the visual performance, especially for some abnormal subjects, and correcting them will improve the vision level. In addition, “higher-order aberrations of the human eye” has become a basic concept in the fields of the clinical application in the visual optics. The fact, that the higher-order aberrations have positive correlation with ametropia, ametropia amblyopia, low vision and the postoperative decrease of the visual performance of the cataract eyes, has been verified. Their corrections are the important step to cure these frequently encountered diseases. However, due to the complex profile distribution of the higher-order aberrations of human eye, they can not be corrected by the conventional clinical method. In this dissertation, we use the micro-optical structures to correct the total aberrations of hum eye, in order to improve the imaging quality of visual optics system, and therefore improve the visual performance farther more. By solving several crucial problems, including the design, optimization, and fabrication of the correcting element and the quality evaluation of the correction, the general method for the customized correction of the aberrations of human eye has been built. This work will establish the theoretical and technical foundations for the realization of the wearable customized correcting lenses used to correct the aberrations in human eye. The present work acts as a part of the 863 program , the studies for the fabrication technology and equipment for the implantable customized lenses of correcting the higher–order aberrations of human eye (Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,and Beijing Tongren Hospital).The main researches are as follows.1) numerical method of tracing light ray in the medium with complex distribution of refractive index.2) researchs on the theoretical impact of the aberrations in human eyes on the subjective and objective visual performance, exploring the error tolerance for the aberration correction. 3) Aiming at the design of the correcting element on curved surface, the theory of wavefronts conversion has been built, and the element design was realized. 4) The effects of the positing error of the implantable micro-optical element on the correction outcome, the investigation for the corresponding optimization technique of the element design. 5) The fabrication and testing of the implantable micro-optical element, evaluating the correction outcome in theory. 6) Performing the simulating experiment of customized correcting the aberrations of human eye, including the building of the customized simulating experimental system of eye, and correcting its aberrations. Through converting the ray equation to the equation of particle motion in the classical mechanics, and by using the symplectic method, the ray tracing in the medium with complex distribution of refractive index has been realized. On the basis of the conventional theory of evaluating image quality, considering the modulation transfer function of retinal and nerve system, and the correlation between the visual Strehl definition and logMAR visual acuity, the theoretical method of evaluating the visual performance and the corresponding software have been built, and then, the effect of single zernike aberration on the imaging quality has been studied, and the influence of the higher-order aberrations of human eye on the visual imaging quality was analyzed, the method that can be used to study the error tolerance in the customized correction of aberrations of human eye was explored. Aiming at the design of the customized correcting element, the wavefronts conversion theory based on an arbitrary refracting surface was built and verified. The basic idea regarding this method is as follows: on the basis of the law of refraction in geometrical optics and the fact that the light rays from a point source form a congruence, a partial differential equation governing the surface-profile function of the arbitrary refracting surface was built, and then, by using Taylor expansion, the local geometry of the surface-profile function can be determined, and then the global geometry of the surface-profile function can be determined point by point, thus the refracting surface can be designed. Based on the wavefronts conversion theory and the theoretical method of evaluating the visual performance, we have systematically studied the design of the customized correcting element, including building the customized model of the imaging system of human eye, designing the customized contact lenses and the customized intraocular lens, evaluating the visual effect of the customized correcting element. These studies show that the element designed can correct the wavefront aberrations of the human eye effectively, the RMS of the residual aberrations is about one tenth of the wave length of light used, and the theoretical visual performance has been improved remarkably. With the use of the least-squares method, the effects of the positing error of the implantable micro-optical element on the correction outcome, and the optimization technique were investigated .The results show that, under the condition of the clinical position error, much more subjects can benefit from the correction of the aberrations of their eyes, provided that the optimization technique was used. By using the Mask-shift filtering technique, the prototype of the customized micro-optical correcting element has been fabricated. The method for analyzing the fabrication error has been put forward and testified, and then, the outcome after the correction has been evaluated. These studies show that the present fabrication accuracy can meet the demand of correcting the aberrations of human eye effectively. For performing the simulating experiment of customized correcting the aberrations of human eye, the customized simulation experimental system of human eye has been designed by according to the anatomical structure and the optical properties of human eye, which has been testified by using the approximate axes calculations and the commercial software. The phase-generation elemente and the customized introcalar artificial lens have been designed by using the wavefronts conversion theory. The results show that the aberrrtions has been effectively corected in terms of the comparision of the transfer function before and after the correction. The rotation positing error of the correcting element has little impact on the outcomes of the aberration correction. When the translation positing error is less than 0.15mm, the outcomes of the aberration correction were obvious. For the usual material of the artificial lens of PMMA in clinical applications, the effect of the changes of the eye pressure on the surface structure of the lens can be ignored. This work will establish the theoretical and technical foundations for the realization of the wearable customized correcting lenses used to correct the aberrations in human eye.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/155
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
高洪涛. 微光学结构矫正人眼像差关键技术研究[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2009.
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