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题名:
针对光电测量的高速数字图像嵌入式记录技术
作者: 任国强
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007-09-05
授予单位: 中国科学院光电技术研究所
授予地点: 光电技术研究所
导师: 吴钦章
关键词: 高速图像记录 ; 嵌入式记录单元 ; Ultra320 SCSI ; VxWorks操作系统 ; 光纤通道
其他题名: Technologies of Embedded Recording High-speed Digital Image Aimed at Electric-Optics Measure
学位专业: 光学工程
中文摘要: 论文旨在研究光学测量设备在引入高速、大面阵CCD后而产生的大容量图像数据实时记录问题。该技术对于光学系统实现高质量景象记录具有重要意义。针对其中的技术难点,在分析系统结构、数据传输路径和存储原理的基础上,提出了解决办法。 对于具有多个高速或多路输出CCD的测量系统,其图像数据流将达到每秒数以百兆字节,并且会超过大多数计算机传输总线的带宽,因此采用并行结构是实现整个记录系统的必然选择。通过分析发现:每条数据流的实时记录在计算机内将会成为一个强实时任务,导致独占CPU时间,总线带宽等系统资源,进而独占整个计算机。光学测量系统要求图像记录在设备内部使用,由于空间有限,需要实现记录子系统的小型化。为此,采用了嵌入式计算机技术来设计记录单元以完成一条通道的图像记录,配置多个记录单元来组成并行记录子系统来完成全部图像数据的实时记录。 提高记录单元的持续记录速度是论文研究的另一个重点。在计算机系统中记录技术必然包含总线传输技术,除此以外,记录还涉及硬盘控制和管理问题。在比较分析多种计算机总线传输机制的基础上,提出以SCSI硬盘存储技术来实现图像记录子系统的解决办法。SCSI技术的优点是采用数据块多路传输可以构建各个级别的RAID存储子系统,由于内嵌多个智能IO处理器,可以把存储事务从Host CPU中分担出来。该技术长期以来应用于服务器等高端设备,在嵌入式系统中引入Ultra320 SCSI以实现对高速图像的实时记录。RAID技术可完成注重数据安全或存储性能的存储子系统,在本论文的技术研究中,采用无数据冗余的RAID0,以直接数据存储的形式接入记录单元。 为了在嵌入式记录单元上最大限度地提高记录速度,需要深入分析图像数据流经的各个环节,解除每个环节可能存在的瓶颈。在系统架构上,采用高性能PowerPC为核心,扩展出PCIX总线对各个模块进行互连,并采用嵌入式实时操作VxWorks对其进行有效管理和实时调度。在图像采集模块,需要扩展足够的数据缓存,以减少中断响应的次数,并设计64Bit局部总线和整个系统性能相匹配。在存储子系统的管理上,除了采用更高性能的SCSI标准,还需要尽量增大写入每个硬盘的数据块,以减少硬盘切换的次数,从而提高整体记录速度。由于硬盘的内部驱动和管理机制各不相同,在稳定性、持续速度上存在差异,需要通过实际测试,选择写入速度稳定、持续记录速度高、数据缓存大的硬盘。 论文对于FC光纤通道数据传输和存储技术做了探索性研究,对其代码的编写和移植需要建立在一个开源的操作系统平台上。 本论文的研究成果已经成功应用于大面阵数字彩色航测相机以及一系列光学测量系统中,满足了对大容量光学测量图像实时记录的技术要求。本文在嵌入式计算机的应用研究领域也具有重要的学术价值。
英文摘要: The purpose of this Ph.D. dissertation is to study real-time recording technologies of mass image data from high-speed or high resolution CCD by used in an electric-optics measure equipments. It is crucial for high quality image recording in an optical measure system. Aiming at the key issues of this field, deep analysis and researches were performed both in system architecture, data path and storage theory, and final solutions is presented. For a measure system with several high-speed CCDs or a multiplex output CCD, the image data rate will be hundreds of mega-bytes per second and exceed most of the bandwidth of computer transmission bus, so using a parallel architecture is a necessary selection to make the total data recorded. By analysis it will be find that the real-time record of every data stream is a strong real-time task, which holds CPU’s time slices and bandwidth of system bus exclusively to hold the total computer. An electric-optics measure system always requires image record to be implemented in it. Because of space limits, image record sub-system must be small enough. So a record cell can be designed by embedded computer technology to fulfill data record from a channel. Multi record cells can be configured to create a parallel record system responsible for real-time record of the total images. Increasing the sustained record speed of a record cell is one of important content of this dissertation. The record technologies in a computer system always relate to data transmission technologies on various buses, which also include the contents of controlling and managing hard disks. Based on comparing and analyzing the transmission mechanism of various buses in a computer, a solutions is given that the image recording subsystem is made by storage technologies of the SCSI hard disk. By data blocks multiplex transmission SCSI has benefits for designing various levels of RAID subsystem. Because a SCSI controller is embedded with multi intelligent IOP, it can offload the storage transaction from host CPU. SCSI technologies are used in some high level equipment in computer field such as server, workstation and first introduced to an embedded system to implement real-time record of high-speed images. Aimed at data security or storage performance, RAID has different levels. RAID0 have no data redundancies, so it is used and attached to an embedded record cell in the researches about storage technologies in the dissertation. For increasing the record speed mostly in embedded record cells, every phases passed by data stream must be analyzed deeply to release the bottle-necks probably existing in them. To system architecture, PowerPC is a kernel, a high performance processor. PCIX bus is designed to connect various modules. VxWorks, a real-time embedded OS, is responsible for managing and scheduling the modules efficiently. In image capture module, buffer memory should be expand large enough to decrease times if interrupt. 64bit local bus must be designed to match with the performance of the total system. To the manage of storage subsystem, the data block written to every hard disk should be large enough to decrease the times of disk shift and increase the total record speed in addition to higher SCSI standard. Because every disk hard has it’s own internal driver and manage mechanism, the stability and sustained speed varies with model. By the test, a hard disk is used, which has stable written speed, higher sustained record speed and large data buffer. The dissertation includes the exploring researches about data transmission and storage on fiber channel. The driver code’s design and transplant are made on the OS, which code is open. The research results have been used in the digital color camera with a large field for aerial survey and in a series of systems for electric-optics measure. The technologies are fit for recording the mass image data real time in the optical measure systems. The work of this dissertation is an important reference in the application or research fields of embedded computers
语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.ioe.ac.cn/handle/181551/141
Appears in Collections:光电技术研究所博硕士论文_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
任国强. 针对光电测量的高速数字图像嵌入式记录技术[D]. 光电技术研究所. 中国科学院光电技术研究所. 2007.
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